Dr. Shaocheng Xie

Research Scientist, Group Leader

Cloud Processes Research and Modeling

Atmospheric, Earth & Energy Division (L103)
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
7000 East Avenue, L-103
Livermore, CA 94551

Tel: (925) 422-6023
Fax: (925) 422-7675
Email: xie2@llnl.gov


Ph.D., 1998, State University of New York at Stony Brook. New York, USA.

M.S., 1988, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences. Beijing, China.

B.S., 1985, Nanjing Institute of Meteorology, Nanjing, China.

Research Interest

My research interests include climate model development and validation, cloud and convection parameterization developments, and objective data analysis. I work with the DOE Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) and the NSF/DOE Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). I use a hierarchy process modeling approach, including single-column model (SCM), cloud-resolving model (CRM), and the Cloud-Associated Parameterizations Testbed (CAPT), to test existing and new parameterizations with both field data and satellite observations.

As a co-Chair for the E3SM Atmospheric Group, I co-led the development of the first generation of E3SM Atmosphere Model (EAMv1). I am currently leading the development of atmospheric physics for the next generation of E3SM. Specific emphasis is to integrate and assess various improvements in atmospheric chemistry, aerosol, clouds, and convection in E3SM.

My research associated with CAPT, which utilizes the short-range weather forecast technique in diagnosing climate model errors, is to systematically explore the correspondence between short- and long-timescale systematic errors in current climate models and clarify over what timescales model systematic errors develop. The goal is to provide essential clue to the origins of these errors.

My research on parameterization developments is mainly focused on convective trigger/closure for deep convection. Specifically, I would like to understand what physical processes and large-scale dynamic and thermodynamic control of cumulus convection and how these processes can be appropriately parameterized in climate models. Currently I emphasize on improving the diurnal cycle of model precipitation, particularly the nocturnal elevated convection over lands, through improving convective triggering mechanisms. I am leading a Global Atmospheric System Studies (GASS) project on modeling diurnal and semi-diurnal cycle of precipitation in different climate regimes.

For the field data analysis, the goal is to develop necessary data products with advanced data analysis methods and quantify their uncertainty in support of cloud modeling study and climate model development. I have been heavily involved in the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program since 1998. One of my responsibilities is to transform the detailed ARM observations into a form that can be easily used by the climate modeling community. Some widely used data products from my ARM science infrastructure group include the ARM best estimate dataset (ARMBE) and the variational analysis derived large-scale forcing data for SCM/CRM/LES studies. We also develop tools to promote ARM data particularly to the climate modeling community, which includes the ongoing effort to develop an ARM radar simulator and an ARM-oriented process diagnostics package for GCMs. We also explore the machine learning approach to help identify data quality issues with ARM observations.

Before I came to the United States, I had worked for 5 years at the National Meteorological Center of China. My research was in the development of numerical weather forecast model for medium-range weather forecasts, which included the development of numerical methods for calculating large-scale advection terms and testing various parameterizations of cumulus convection.

Professional Employment

Jun 2001- Present: Research Scientist, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA.

Oct 1998 - May 2001: Post-doctoral researcher, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA.

Aug 1993 - Oct 1998: Research Assistant, Inst. of Terrestrial and Planetary Atmosphere, SUNY at Stony Brook. Stony Brook, New York.

Jul 1988 - Aug. 1993: Research scientist/Senior Research Scientist, Numerical Weather Prediction Division, National Meteorological Center, Beijing, China.

Leadership in Major Climate Projects

Research Highlights

Awards (selected)

Professional Activities and Leadership Roles (Selected)

Invited/Plenary Presentations in Recent Years (2011-2019)

  1. “The E3SM Next Generation Development of Atmospheric Physics”, Invited speaker, the DOE ARM/ASR annual PI meeting, June 10-13, 2019, Maryland, US.
  2. Xie, S. 2018: “Toward Bridging Field Observations and Climate Model Developments: The U. S. DOE Modeling Testbeds”, Invited Seminar, University of Arizona. Oct. 2018, Tucson, AZ.
  3. Xie, S. 2018: “The Cloud-Associated Parameterizations Testbed (CAPT) – Diagnosing Climate Model Errors with Weather Forecast Technique”, ZiJing Forum, Tsinghua University. May 2018, Beijing, China.
  4. Xie, S. 2017: “Update on the U.S. DOE ACME Model Development and Its Plan for CMIP6”, invited speaker, the US-China Climate Model Intercomparison workshop. Aug 23-25, 2017, Beijing, China.
  5. Xie, S. et al. 2017: “Recent progress on the US DOE high-resolution climate model development”, Invited speaker, the 2016 CCLiCS Workshop on Earth System Modeling, Oct. 25-28, 2016, Taipei, Taiwan.
  6. Xie. S. et al., 2016: Bridging the Gap between GCM Clouds and Detailed Ground-Based Cloud Observations – the ARM Cloud Radar Simulator, AOGS, Jul. 31 – Aug. 5, 2016, Beijing, China.
  7. Xie. S. et al., 2016: Diagnosis of Climate Model Errors in Simulating Surface Temperature over Central United States, AOGS, Jul. 31 – Aug. 5, 2016, Beijing, China.
  8. Xie, S. et al, 2015: Clouds and Precipitation Simulated by the US DOE ACME. Invited speaker, AOGS, Aug. 2-7, 2015, Singapore.
  9. Collins. W., I., Kraucunas, and S. Xie, 2014: Climate Science. Presenter, National Lab Day on Capital Hill, Sept. 16, 2014, Washington D.C, USA.
  10. Xie, S. et al., 2014: Understanding Climate Model Errors using the Weather Forecast Technique with Field Data. Invited speaker, AOGS, July 28 – Aug. Sapporo, Japan.
  11. Xie, S. et al., 2014: The DOE ARM/ASR Effort in Quantifying Uncertainty in Ground-Based Cloud Property Retrievals. Invited speaker, AOGS, July 28 – Aug. Sapporo, Japan.
  12. Xie, S. and J. Mather, 2013: The DOE ARM Program and Its Role in Climate Research. Invited speaker, The Next Generation Climate Data Products Workshop, 14-19 July 2013, Boulder, CO, USA.
  13. Xie, S., A. Protat, and C. Zhao, 2013: The US-DOE ARM/ASR Effort in Quantifying Uncertainty in Ground-Based Cloud Property Retrievals. Invited speaker, AGU fall meeting, Dec. 9-13, 2013, San Francisco, CA, USA.
  14. Xie, S., et al., 2013: Overview of the ASR QUICR Activities. Plenary talk, 2013 ASR Science Team Meeting, Mar. 18-21, 2013, Washington D. C., USA.
  15. Xie S. et al., 2012: On the Correspondence between Short- and Long- Timescale Systematic Errors in Transpose-AMIP models. Plenary talk, 1st pan-GASS meeting, September 10-14, 2012, Boulder, CO, USA.
  16. Xie. S. et al., 2012: Understanding Climate Model Parameterization Errors in Forecasts Using Field Data. Invited speaker, AOGS-AGU (WPGM) Joint Assembly, Aug. 13-17, 2012, Singapore.
  17. Xie S. et al., 2012: Correspondence between Forecast Errors and Climate Errors in Transpose-AMIP and CMIP5 Models. Invited speaker, AOGS-AGU (WPGM) Joint Assembly, Aug. 13-17, 2012, Singapore.
  18. Xie, S. et al., 2011: Development of the Large-Scale Forcing Data to Support MC3E Cloud Modeling Studies. Invited speaker, AGU fall meeting, Dec. 5-9, 2011, San Francisco, CA, USA.
  19. Xie, S., 2011: Transform Detailed ARM Observations into An Useful Climate Modeling dataset. Invited Speaker, DOE ARM Data Developer Meeting. July 16 – 17, 2011, Oak Ridge, TN, USA.

First Author Peer-Reviewed Publications (17)

  1. Xie, S. et al. (2019): Improved Diurnal Cycle of Precipitation in E3SM with a Revised Convective Triggering Function. JAMES, Submitted.

  2. Xie, S., Lin, W., Rasch, P. J., Ma, P.‐L., Neale, R., Larson, V. E., et al. (2018). Understanding cloud and convective characteristics in version 1 of the E3SM atmosphere model. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 10, 2618–2644. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018MS001350.

  3. Xie, S., Y. Zhang, S. E. Giangrande, M. P. Jensen, R. McCoy, and M. Zhang, 2014: Interactions between Cumulus Convection and Its Environment as Revealed by the MC3E Sounding Array. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 11784–11808, doi: 10.1002/2014JD022011.

  4. Xie, S., X. Liu, C. Zhao, and Y. Zhang, 2013: Sensitivity of CAM5 Simulated Arctic Clouds and Radiation to Ice Nucleation, J. Clim. 26, 5981-5999, DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00517.1.

  5. Xie, S., H. Ma, J. Boyle, S. Klein, and Y. Zhang, 2012: On the Correspondence between Short- and Long- Timescale Systematic Errors in CAM4/CAM5 for the Years of Tropical Convection. J. Clim. 25, 7937–7955. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00134.1.

  6. Xie, S., and 16-coauthors, 2010: ARM climate modeling best estimate data, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 91, 13–20 , doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2891.1 .

  7. Xie, S., T. Hume, C. Jakob, S. Klein, R. McCoy, and M. Zhang, 2010: Observed large-scale structures and diabatic heating and drying profiles during TWP-ICE, J. Climate, 23, 57-79, doi:10.1175/2009JCLI3071.1< .

  8. Xie, S., J. Boyle, S. A. Klein, X. Liu and S. Ghan, 2008: Simulations of Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds in Forecasts with CAM3 and AM2 for M-PACE, Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, D04211, doi:10.1029/2007JD009225 .

  9. Xie, S., S. Klein, M. Zhang, J. Yio, R. Cederall, and R. McCoy, 2006: Developing large-scale forcing data for single-column and cloud-resolving models from the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D19104, doi:10.1029/2005JD006950 .

  10. Xie, S., et al., 2006: An assessment of ECMWF analyses and model forecasts over the North Slope of Alaska using observations from the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D05107, doi:10.1029/2005JD006509 .

  11. Xie, S., and 24 co-authors, 2005: Simulations of midlatitude frontal clouds by SCMs and CSRMs during the ARM March 2000 Cloud IOP. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D15S03, doi:10.1029/2004JD005119

  12. Xie, S., M. H. Zhang, J. S. Boyle, R. T. Cederwall, G. L. Potter, and W. Y. Lin, 2004: Impact of a revised convective triggering mechanism on CAM2 model simulations: results from short-range weather forecasts. J. Geophys. Res. 109, D14102, doi:10.1029/2004JD004692.

  13. Xie, S., R. T. Cederwall, and M. H. Zhang, 2004: Developing long-term single-column model/cloud system-resolving model forcing using numerical weather prediction products constrained by surface and top of the atmosphere observations. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D01104, doi:10.1029/2003JD004045

  14. Xie, S., R. T. Cederwall, M. H. Zhang, and J. J. Yio, 2003: Comparison of SCM and CSRM Forcing Data Derived from the ECMWF Model and From Objective Analysis at the ARM SGP Site. J. Geophys. Res., 108 (D16), 4499, doi:10.1029/2003JD003541.

  15. Xie, S., et al., 2002: Intercomparison and Evaluation of Cumulus Parameterization under Summertime Midlatitude Continental Conditions. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 128, 1095-1136, DOI: 10.1256/003590002320373229

  16. Xie, S., and M. H. Zhang, 2000: Impact of the Convection triggering Function on Single-Column Model Simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 14983-14996, DOI: 10.1029/2000JD900170

  17. Xie, S. C., 1991: A New Positive Definite Advection Scheme and its Application to the Moisture Equation. ACTA METEOROLOGICA SINICA, Vol.49, 11-20.

Other Peer-Reviewed Publications (80)

  1. Rasch, P. J., S. Xie, P. Ma, W. Lin, et al. (2019): An Overview of the Atmospheric Component of the Energy Exascale Earth System Model. JAMES, submitted.

  2. Zheng et al. 2019: The Summertime Precipitation Bias in E3SM Atmosphere Model Version 1 (EAMv1) over the Central United States. Submitted to JGR

  3. Tao, C., Y. Zhang, S. Tang, Q. Tang, H. Ma, S. Xie, and M. Zhang, 2019: Regional moisture budget and land-atmosphere coupling over the US Sothern Great Plains inferred from the ARM long-term observations. JGR, Submitted.

  4. Zhang, M., X. Liu, et al. (including S. Xie), 2019: Impacts of Subgrid Mixing between Cloud Liquid and Ice on Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds with NCAR CAM5. JGR, submitted.

  5. Golaz, J. C. et al. (including S. Xie) (2019): The DOE E3SM Coupled Model Version 1: Overview and Evaluation at Standard Resolution, JAMES, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018MS001603.

  6. Tang, S., Xie, S., Zhang, M., Tang, Q., Zhang, Y., Klein, S. A., et al (2019). Differences in Eddy‐Correlation and Energy‐Balance Surface Turbulent Heat Flux Measurements and Their Impacts on the Large‐scale Forcing Fields at the ARM SGP Site. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD029689.

  7. Tang, Q., S. A. Klein, S. Xie, W. Lin, et al. (2019). Regionally refined capability in E3SM Atmosphere Model Version 1 (EAMv1) and applications for high-resolution modelling. Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-2019-11.

  8. Jiang, T., Evans, K., Branstetter, M., et al. (including S. Xie) (2019). Northern Hemisphere blocking in ∼25‐km‐resolution E3SM v0.3 atmosphere‐land simulations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD028892.

  9. Qian, Y., and coauthors including S. Xie, 2018: Parametric Sensitivity and Uncertainty Quantification in the Version 1 of E3SM Atmosphere Model Based on Short Perturbed Parameter Ensemble Simulations. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD028927.

  10. Zhang, K., Rasch, P. J., Taylor, M. A., Wan, H., Leung, R., Ma, P.-L., Golaz, J.-C., Wolfe, J., Lin, W., Singh, B., Burrows, S., Yoon, J.-H., Wang, H., Qian, Y., Tang, Q., Caldwell, P., and Xie, S.: Impact of numerical choices on water conservation in the E3SM Atmosphere Model version 1 (EAMv1), Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1971-1988, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-11-1971-2018, 2018

  11. Zhang, T., Zhang, M., Lin, W., Lin, Y., Xue, W., Yu, H., He, J., Xin, X., Ma, H.-Y., Xie, S., and Zheng, W. 2018: Automatic tuning of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM5) by using short-term hindcasts with an improved downhill simplex optimization method, Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 5189-5201, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-11-5189-2018.

  12. Ma, H., C. Zhou, Y. Zhang, S. A. Klein, M. D. Zelinka, X. Zheng, S. Xie, W.-T. Chen, and C.-M. Wu, 2018: Insights into climate model moist processes errors from a multi-year ensemble of short-range hindcasts, to be re-submitted.

  13. Zhang, Y. S. Xie, et al. 2018: Evaluation of Clouds in EAMv1 with Satellite and Ground-based Simulators. JGR, submitted.

  14. Tang, Q., S. Xie, Y. Zhang, T. Phillips, J. Santanello, D. Cook, L. Riihimaki, and K. Gaustad, 2018: Heterogeneity in Warm-Season Land-Atmosphere Coupling over the U.S. Southern Great Plains. J. Geophys. Res., (Atmospheres), https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD028463.

  15. Zhang, Y., S. Xie, et al., 2018: The ARM cloud radar simulator for global climate models: Bridging field data and climate models. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 99, 21–26, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0258.1.

  16. Feldman, D. R., W. D. Collins, S.C. Biraud, M.D. Risser, D.D. Turner, P.J. Gero, S. Xie, E.J. Mlawer, T.R Shippert, L.D. Riihimaki, E.J. Dlugokency, P.C. Novelli, D. Helmig, J. Hueber, M. S. Torn, 2018: First observation of CH4 surface radiative forcing and its thermodynamic dependence, Nature Geoscience. 11, 238-241. DOI:10.1038/s41561-018-0085-9.

  17. Zhang, C., S. Xie, S. A. Klein, H. Ma, S. Tang, K. Van Weverbery, C. J. Morcrette, and J. Petch, 2018: CAUSES: Diagnosis of the Summertime Warm Bias in CMIP5 Climate Models at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 123, 2968–2992. DOI: 10.1002/2017JD027200

  18. Ma, H.-Y., S. A. Klein, S. Xie, et al. 2018: CAUSES: On the role of surface energy budget errors to the warm surface air temperature error over the Central U.S. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 123, 2888–2909. DOI: 10.1002/2017JD027194.

  19. Van Weverberg, K., C. J. Morcrette, J. Petch, S. A. Klein, H.-Y. Ma, C. Zhang, S. Xie, Q. Tang, W. I. Gustafson, Y. Qian, L. K. Berg, M. Wang, Y. Liu, M. Ahlgrimm,R. Forbes, E. Bazile, R. Roehrig, J. Cole, W. Merryfield, W.-S. Lee, F. Cheruy,L. Mellul, Y.-C. Wang, K. Johnson, and M. Khaiyer, 2018: CAUSES: Attribution of surface radiation biases in NWP and climate models near the U.S. Southern Great Plains. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 123, 3612–3644. DOI: 10.1002/2017JD027188.

  20. Morcrette, C. J., and coauthors including H.-Y. Ma, 2018: Introduction to CAUSES: Near-surface temperature errors in NWP and climate model 5-day hindcasts near the Southern Great Plains. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 123, 2655–2683. DOI: 10.1002/2017JD027199.

  21. Qin, Y., Y. Lin, S. Xue, H. Ma, and S. Xie, 2018: A diagnostic PDF cloud scheme to improve subtropical low clouds in NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5), J. Adv. Model. Earth Sys., 10, 320–341. DOI: 10.1002/2017MS001095.

  22. Zhang, K., P. J. Rasch, M. A. Taylor, H. Wan, R. Leung, P.-L. Ma, J.-C. Golaz, J. Wolfe, W. Lin, B. Singh, S. Burrows, J.-H. Yoon, H.Wang, Y. Qian, Q. Tang, P. Caldwell, and S. Xie (2018), Impact of numerical choices on water conservation in the E3SM Atmosphere Model version 1 (EAMv1), Geosci. Model Dev., 11(5), 1971–1988, doi:10.5194/gmd-11-1971-2018.

  23. Phillips, T. J., S. A. Klein, H. Ma, Q. Tang, S. Xie, I. N. Williams, J. A. Santanello, D. R. Cook, and M. S. Torn, 2017: Using ARM observations to evaluate climate model simulations of land-atmosphere coupling on the U.S. Southern Great Plains. J. Geophys. Res., 122, 11,524–11,548. Doi:10.1002/2017JD027141

  24. Giangrande, S. E., Z. Feng, M. P. Jensen, J. Comstock…, S. Xie, …, 2017: Cloud characteristics, thermodynamic controls and radiative impacts during the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) experiment, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14519-14541, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-14519-2017.

  25. Tang, S., M. Zhang, and S. Xie, 2017: Investigating the Scale Dependence of SCM Simulated Precipitation and Clouds by Using Gridded Forcing Data at SGP. J. Geophys. Res., 122, 8724–8738, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JD026565

  26. Zhang, Y., S. A. Klein, J. Fan, A. Chundra, P. Kollias, S. Xie and S. Tang, 2017: Large-eddy simulation of shallow cumulus clouds over land: A composite case based on ARM long-term observations at its Southern Great Plains site. J. Atmos. Sci., 74, 3229-3251, DOI: 10.1175/JAS-D-16-0317.1.

  27. Ciesielski, P. E., R. H. Johnson, X. Jiang, Y. Zhang, and S. Xie (2017), Relationships between radiation,clouds, and convection during DYNAMO, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 122, 2529–2548, doi:10.1002/2016JD025965. Highlighted by Eos: https://eos.org/research-spotlights/what-makes-the-biggest-cycle-in-tropical-weather-tick

  28. Tang, S., S. Xie, et al. 2016: Large-Scale Vertical Velocity, Diabatic Heating and Drying Profiles Associated with Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Convective Systems Observed in the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 2016, 1-39, doi: 10.5194/acp-2016-644.

  29. Zhang, M., Somerville, R.C. and Xie, S., 2016. The SCM Concept and Creation of ARM Forcing Datasets. Meteorological Monographs, 57, pp.24-1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/AMSMONOGRAPHS-D-15-0040.1.

  30. Tang, S. , M. Zhang, and S. Xie 2015: Ensemble Constrained Variational Analysis of Atmospheric Forcing Data for Process Models and Application to Evaluate Simulated Clouds in CAM. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., doi: 10.1002/2015JD024167.

  31. Ma, H. et al. (including S. Xie) 2015: Evaluation and diagnosis of physical processes in global climate models with an improved hindcast approach. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 7, 1810–1827, doi:10.1002/2015MS000490.

  32. Jensen, M.P., W.A. Petersen, A. Bansemer, N. Bharadwaj, L.D. Carey, D.J. Cecil, S.M. Collis, A.D. Del Genio, B. Dolan, J. Gerlach, S.E. Giangrande, A. Heymsfield, G. Heymsfield, P. Kollias, T.J. Lang, S.W. Nesbitt, A. Neumann, M. Poellot, S.A. Rutledge, M. Schwaller, A. Tokay, C.R. Williams, D.B. Wolff, S. Xie, and E.J. Zipser, 2015: The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., in press, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00228.1.

  33. Muhlbauer, A., T. P. Ackerman, P. R. Lawson, S. Xie, and Y. Zhang, 2015: An observationally-based study case of midlatitude cirrus for cloud-permitting and cloud-resolving models. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 6597-6618, doi:10.1002/2014JD022570.

  34. Chen, X., Q. Tang, S. Xie, and C. Zhao (2015), A variance-based decomposition and global sensitivity index method for uncertainty quantification: Application to retrieved ice cloud properties. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 4234–4247. doi: 10.1002/2014JD022750

  35. Boyle, J. S., Klein, S. A., Lucas, D. D., Ma, H. -Y. ., Tannahill, J. and Xie, S. (2015), The parametric sensitivity of CAM5’s MJO. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120: 1424–1444. doi: 10.1002/2014JD022507.

  36. Vogelmann, A. M., A. M. Fridlind, T. Toto, S. Endo, W. Lin, J. Wang, S. Feng, Y. Zhang, D. D. Turner, Y. Liu, Z. Li, S. Xie, A. S. Ackerman, M. Zhang, and M. Khairoutdinov (2015), RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations: 1. Case study development and ensemble large-scale forcings. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 5962–5992. doi: 10.1002/2014JD022713.

  37. Jensen, M. P., Toto, T., Troyan, D., Ciesielski, P. E., Holdridge, D., Kyrouac, J., Schatz, J., Zhang, Y., and Xie, S.: The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) sounding network: operations, processing and analysis, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 421-434, doi:10.5194/amt-8-421-2015, 2015.

  38. Ma, H., S. Xie, S. Klein, et al. 2014: On the Correspondence between Mean Forecast Errors and Climate Errors in CMIP5 Models. J. Climate. 27, 1781-1798. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00474.1.

  39. Zhao, C., S. Xie, X. Chen, M. Jensen, and M. Dunn, 2014: Quantifying uncertainties of cloud microphysical property retrievals with a perturbation method. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 5375–5385, doi:10.1002/2013JD021112.

  40. Petch, J., A. Hill, L. Davis, A. Fridlind, C. Jakob, Y. Lin, S. Xie, and P. Zhu, 2014: Evaluation of intercomparison of four different types of model simulating TWP-ICE, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 140, 826-837, DOI: 10.1002/qj.2192.

  41. Ma, H., S. Xie, J. Boyle, S. Klein, and Y. Zhang, 2013: Development of Metrics and Diagnostics for CAM Climate Model Short-range Forecasts. J. Climate. 26, 1516-1534. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00235.1.

  42. Lin, Y., M. Zhao, Y. Ming, J-C. Golaz, L. J. Donner, S. A. Klein, V. Ramaswamy, and S. Xie, 2013: Precipitation partitioning, tropical clouds and intraseasonal variability in GFDL AM2. J. Clim. , 26, 5453–5466. doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00442.1.

  43. Davies, L., et al. (including S. Xie), 2013: A Single Column Model Ensemble approach applied the TWP-ICE experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 118, 6544-6563, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50450.

  44. Davies, L. C. Jakob, V. Kumar, P. May and S. Xie, 2013: Relationships between the large-scale atmosphere and the small-scale state for Darwin, Australia. J. Geophys. Res., accepted. DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50645.

  45. Zhang, Y., S. Xie, C. Covey, D. D. Lucas, P. Gleckler, S. Klein, J. Tannahill, C. Doutriaux,and R. Klein, 2012: Regional assessment of the parameter-dependent performance of CAM4 in simulating tropical clouds. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L14708, doi:10.1029/2012GL052184.

  46. Qian Y, CN Long, H Wang, JM Comstock, SA McFarlane, and S Xie. 2012: Evaluation of Cloud Fraction and Its Radiative Effect Simulated by IPCC AR4 Global Models Against ARM Surface Observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 1785-1810. DOI:10.5194/acp-12-1785-2012.

  47. Zhao, C., S. A. Klein, S. Xie, X. Liu, J. S. Boyle, and Y. Zhang, 2012: Aerosol First Indirect effects on non-precipitating low-level liquid cloud properties as simulated by CAM5 at ARM sites, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L08806, doi:10.1029/2012GL051213.

  48. Fridlind, A., et al. (including S. Xie), 2012: A Cloud-Resolving Model Intercomparison Based on the Tropical Warm Pool–International Cloud Experiment, Part I: Specification and Results versus Domain-Wide Observations. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D05204 DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016595.

  49. Zhao, C. S. Xie, S. Klein, et al., 2012: Toward Understanding of Differences in Current Cloud Retrievals of ARM Ground-based Measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D10206, DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016792.

  50. Huang, D., C. Zhao, M. Dunn, X. Dong, G. G. Mace, M. P. Jensen, S. Xie, and Y. Liu, 2012: An intercomparison of radar-based liquid cloud microphysics retrievals and implication for model evaluation studies. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 1409-1424 DOI: 10.5194/amt-5-1409-2012.

  51. Lin, Y., L. J. Donner, J. Petch, P. Bechtold, J. Boyle, S. A. Klein, T. Komori, K. Wapler, M. Willett, X. Xie, M. Zhao, S. Xie, S. A. MaFarlane, C. Schumacher, 2012: TWP-ICE global atmospheric model intercomparison: Convection responsiveness and resolution impact. J. Geophys. Res., 117, D09111, doi: 10.1029/2011JD017018.

  52. Chuang, C. C., J. Kelly, J. Boyle, and S. Xie, 2012: Sensitivity of Aerosol Indirect Effects to Cloud Nucleation and Autoconversion Parameterizations in Short-Range Weather Forecasts over the Southern Great Plains During May 2003 IOP. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, DOI: 10.1029/2012MS000161.

  53. Liu, X., S. Xie, J. Boyle, S. A. Klein, X. Shi, Z. Wang, W. Lin, S. J. Ghan, M. Earle, P. S. K. Liu, and A. Zelenyuk1, 2011: Testing Cloud Microphysics Parameterizations in NCAR CAM5 with ISDAC and M-PACE Observations. J. Geophys. Res., 116, D00T11, doi:10.1029/2011JD015889.

  54. Zeng, X., W. Tao, T. Matsui, S. Xie, S. Lang, M. Zhang, D. Starr, and X. Li 2011: Estimating the ice crystal enhancement factor in the tropics. J. Atmos. Sci. 68, 1424-1434.

  55. McFarquhar, G., S. Ghan, et al. (including S. Xie), 2011: Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC): The Impact of Arctic Aerosols on Clouds, Bull. Amer. Meteor.,doi: 10.1175/2010BAMS2935.1.

  56. Kennedy, A., X. Dong, B. Xi, S. Xie, Y. Zhang, and J. Chen, 2011: A Comparison of MERRA and NARR Reanalysis Datasets with the DOE ARM SGP Continuous Forcing data. J. climate, 24 4541-4557 DOI: 10.1175/2011JCLI3978.1.

  57. Woolnough, S. J., P. N. Blossey, K .- M. Xu, P. Bechtold, J.-P. Chaboureau, T. Hosomi, S.F. Iacobellis, Y. Luo, J. C. Petch, R. Y. Wong, and S. Xie, 2010: Modeling convective processes during the suppressed phase of a Madden-Julian Oscillation: Comparing single-column models with cloud-resolving models. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. ,136 , 333-353, DOI:10.1002/qj.568.

  58. Wang, W., X. Liu, S. Xie, J. Boyle, and S. McFarlane, 2009: Testing ice microphysics parameterizations in NCAR CAM3 using TWP-ICE data, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D14107, doi:10.1029/2008JD011220 .

  59. Zeng, X., W. Tao, M.Zhang, A. Hou, S. Xie, S. Lang, X. li, D. Starr, and X. Li, 2009: A contribution by ice neclei to global warming. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 135, 1614-1629. DOI:10.1002/qj.449 .

  60. Klein et al. (including S. Xie) 2009: Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., . Soc., 135: 979-1002. DOI:10.1002/qi.416 .

  61. Marrison etal. (including S. Xie) 2009: Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part II: Multi-layered cloud, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 135: doi :10.1002 /qj.415.

  62. Zeng, X., W. Tao et al., S. Xie , et al., 2009: The indirect effect of ice nuclei on atmospheric radiation. J. Atmos. Sci. 66, 41-61. doi: 10.1175/2008JAS2778.1

  63. Boyle, J., S. Klein, G. Zhang, S. Xie, R. Pincus, and X. Wei, 2008: Climate model forecast experiments for TOGA-COARE. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 808-832. doi: 10.1175/2007MWR2145.1

  64. Guo, H., J. Penner, M. Herzog, and S. Xie, 2007: In vestigation of the first and second aerosol indirect effects on clouds during the May 2003 ARM intensive operational period at Southern Great Plains. J. Geophys. Res. 112, D15206, doi:10.1029/2006JD007173 .

  65. Zeng, X., W. Tao et al., S. Xie et al., 2007: Evaluation of long-term cloud resolving modeling with observational cloudy data. J. Atmos. Sci. 64, 4153-4177. doi: 10.1175/2007JAS2170.1

  66. Liu, X., S. Xie, and S. J. Ghan, 2007: Evaluation of a new mixed-Phase cloud microphysics parameterization with the NCAR single column climate model (SCAM) and ARM M-PACE observations, Geophysical Research Letter, 34, L23712, doi:10.1029/2007GL031446 .

  67. Klein, S., X. Jiang, J. Boyle, S. Malyshev, S. Xie, 2006: Diagnosis of the summertime warm and dry bias over the U. S. Southern Great Plains in the GFDL climate model using a weather forecasting approach. Geophys. Res. Lett ., 33, L18805, doi:10.1029/2006GL027567

  68. Xu, K.-M., M. H. Zhang , …, S. Xie et al., 2005:. Modeling springtime shallow and deep frontal clouds with CRMs and SCMs. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D15S04, doi:10.1029/2004JD005153 .

  69. Boyle, J. S., et al., and S. Xie, 2005: Diagnosis of CAM2 in NWP configuration. J. Geophys. Res., 110 doi:10.1029/2004JD005042 .

  70. Williamson, D. L., et al., and S. Xie, 2005: Moisture and temperature budgets at the ARM SGP site in forecasts with CAM2. J. Geophys. Res., 110 doi:10.1029/2004JD005109 .

  71. Zhang, M. H., W. Y. Lin, et al, and S. Xie, 2005: Comparing clouds and their variations in 10 atmospheric general circulation models with satellite measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 110 doi:10.1029/2004JD005021 .

  72. Phillips, T. J., et al., and S. Xie , 2004: The CCPP-ARM Parameterization Testbed (CAPT): Where climate simulation meet with weather prediction. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,85 , 1903-1915. doi: 10.1175/BAMS-85-12-1903

  73. Xu, K.-M., R. T. Cederwall et al., and S. Xie, 2002: An Intercomparison of cloud-resolving models with the ARM summer 1997 IOP data. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 128, 593-624. doi: 10.1256/003590002320373229

  74. Waliser, D. E., J. Ridout, S. Xie, and M. Zhang, 2002: A Model Assessment of the Variational Objective Analysis: Implications for Atmospheric Field Programs. J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 3436-3456. doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<3436:VOAFAF>2.0.CO;2

  75. Zhang M. H., J. L. Lin, R. Cederwall, J. Yio, and S.C. Xie, 2001: Objective Analysis of ARM IOP Data: Method, Features, and Sensitivity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 295 – 311.doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<0295:OAOAID>2.0.CO;2

  76. Ghan S., et al., and S. Xie, 2000: An Intercomparison of Single Column Model Simulations of Summertime Midlatitude Continental Convection. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 2091-2121. doi: 10.1029/1999JD900971

  77. Zhang, M. H., R. D. Cess, and S. C. Xie, 1996: Relationship between Cloud Radiative Forcing and Sea Surface Temperatures over the Entire Tropical Oceans. J. Climate, 9, 1374 -1384.doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<1374:RBCRFA>2.0.CO;2

  78. Tu, W., S. C. Xie, and W. Chen, 1995: Experiments of the NMC (Beijing) T63 Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation Operational System. Quart. J. of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 6, 199-205.

  79. Shen, Y., X. Ding, and S. Xie, 1994: Analysis increment vertical interpolation scheme in T63 data assimilation and its experiments. Quart. J. of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 4.

  80. Tian Y., and S. C. Xie, 1987: Test of Explicit Integration Schemes for the Barotropic Primitive Equation Model. Journal of Nanjing Institute of Meteorology, Vol.10, 95-102.

Selected White Papers and Other Program Documents (2011-2018)

  1. Xie, S. D. Neelin, P. Bechtold, H. Ma, 2018: Improving the simulation of diurnal and sub-diurnal precipitation over different climate regimes. White paper to the Global Atmospheric System Studies (GASS) Panel.

  2. Riihimaki, L., including S. Xie, 2018: Translator Plan: A Coordinated Vision for Fiscal Years 2018-2020. https://www.arm.gov/publications/programdocs/doe-sc-arm-17-039.pdf.

  3. DOE Workshop Report on “2017 Developers’ Meeting”, July 18-20, 2017, PNNL, Richland, WA. (Contributing author)

  4. Zhang C and S Xie. 2017. ARM Data-Oriented Metrics and Diagnostics Package for Climate Model Evaluation Value-Added Product. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-202.

  5. Zhang Y and S Xie. 2017. ARM Cloud Radar Simulator Package for Global Climate Models Value-Added Product.Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-190.

  6. DOE Workshop Report on “ACME/ASR/ARM Coordination Workshop”, Oct. 21-22, 2016, Washington D. C., USA. DOE BER Documentation. http://science.energy.gov/~/media/ber/pdf/workshop%20reports/CESD_ACME_ARM_ASR_workshopreport_web.pdf (workshop co-Chair, one of the lead authors).

  7. The US DOE ASR Workshop Report on the Representation of Convection in the Next Generation Climate Models Feb 3-5 2016, Richland, WA. (Workshop participant)

  8. Contributed to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Data Decadal Vision. DOE ARM documentation, in preparation, 2015.

  9. DOE Workshop Report on “ACME/ASR/ARM coordination meeting”, Oct. 21-22, 2015, Washington D. C., USA. DOE BER Documentation, in preparation, (workshop co-Chair).

  10. DOE Workshop Report on “DOE Data and Informatics Workshop”, August 13-15, 2015, Washington D. C., USA. DOE BER Documentation., in preparation, (workshop participant).

  11. DOE Workshop Report on “The DOE High-Resolution Modeling Workshop”, May 19-20, 2014, Washington D. C., USA. DOE BER Documentation. (workshop participant).

  12. DOE Workshop Report on “The DOE ARM North Slope of Alaska Supersite Workshop”, Sept. 10-11, 2014, Washington D. C., USA. DOE BER Documentation. (workshop participant).

  13. Contributed to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Decadal Vision. DOE ARM documentation, http://www.arm.gov/publications/programdocs/doe-sc-arm-14-029.pdf, 2014.

  14. Haeffelin M. and S. Xie. 2013: US-EU Data-Harmonization Working Group Whitepaper for “Atmospheric Research Observatory Data Re-Analysis for GCM and LES Initialization and Evaluation and Climate Studies”. DOE ARM documentation.

  15. DOE Workshop Report on “Climate Change Challenges and Observations”, November 2012, Washington D. C., USA. DOE BER Documentation. (workshop participant).

  16. DOE Workshop Report on “Community Modeling and Long-Term Predictions of the Integrated Water Cycle”, September 2012, Washington D. C., USA. DOE BER Documentation. (workshop participant).

  17. Xie, S., et al. 2011: The whitepaper for “Quantification of Uncertainty in Cloud Retrievals (QUICR)”. DOE ARM documentation.

  18. Xie, S., et al. 2011: Guidance for Modification and Reprocessing of ARM Datastreams. DOE ARM documentation.