Model Intercomparison

AMIP - Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project

AMIP is a standard experimental protocol for global atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs).

CMIP - Coupled Model Intercomparison Project

The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) studies output from coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models that also include interactive sea ice.


The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase II


The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase III


The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase V


The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase VI

Related Intercomparison Projects

Detection and Attribution

Detection and Attribution Research

PCMDI has led research into the detection and attribution of the causes of climate-change. This work has considered a wide-range of changes to the global climate system and included analyses of atmospheric temperature, precipitable water, ocean heat content and other key aspects of the climate system

Climate Model Diagnosis

Diagnosis of Climate Models

PCMDI’s mission is to develop improved methods and tools for the diagnosis and evaluation of climate models. Although models have become increasingly complex, model errors and disagreements among model simulations remain substantial and poorly understood. The nature and causes of these disagreements should be uncovered before the models are fully trusted to inform us about global climate change.

Climate Model Metrics

Diagnosis of Climate Model Performance

The PCMDI metrics package is used to objectively compare results from climate models with observations using well-established statistical tests. Results are produced in the context of all model simulations contributed to CMIP5 and earlier CMIP phases



obs4MIPs (Observations for Model Intercomparisons Project) is an activity to make observational products more accessible for climate model intercomparisons



input4MIPS (input datasets for Model Intercomparison Projects) is an activity to make available via ESGF the boundary condition and forcing datasets needed for CMIP6. Various datasets are needed for the pre-industrial control (piControl), AMIP, and historical, simulations, and additional datasets are needed for many of the CMIP6-endorsed model intercomparison projects (MIPs) experiments. Earlier versions of many of these datasets were used in the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5)

Supplemental Material

Supplemental Material for Ken Sperber’s Publication