Räisänen, J., 2003:
CO2-induced changes in angular momentum in CMIP2 experiments
Journal of Climate, 16, 132-143.


The response of atmospheric angular momentum to a gradual doubling of CO2 is studied using 16 model experiments participating in the second phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. The relative angular momentum associated with atmospheric zonal winds increases in all but one of the models, although the magnitude of the change varies widely. About 90% of the 16-model mean increase comes from increasing westerly winds in the stratosphere and the uppermost low-latitude troposphere above 200 hPa. This increase in westerly winds reflects a steepening of the meridional temperature gradient near the tropopause and in the upper troposphere. The simulated temperature gradient at this height increases partly as an indirect consequence of the poleward decrease in the tropopause height, and partly because convection induces a maximum in warming in the tropical upper troposphere. The change in the omega angular momentum associated with the surface pressure distribution is in most models smaller than the change in the relative angular momentum, although its exact value is sensitive to the method of calculation.