SUNYA/NCAR footnotes

State University of New York at Albany/National Center for Atmospheric Research (SUNYA/NCAR): References

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[2]Pollard, D., and S.L. Thompson, 1992: Users' guide to the GENESIS Global Climate Model Version 1.02. Interdisciplinary Climate Systems Section, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, 58 pp.

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[4]Thompson, S.L., and D. Pollard, 1995: A global climate model (GENESIS) with a land-surface-transfer scheme (LSX). Part 1: Present climate simulation. J. Climate, 8, 732-761.

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[8]Williamson, D.L., 1983: Description of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM0B). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-210+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 88 pp.

[9]Williamson, D.L., 1988: The effect of vertical finite difference approximations on simulations with the NCAR Community Climate Model. J. Climate, 1, 40-58.

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[16]Cunnold, D., W.P. Chu, R.A. Barnes, M.P. McCormick, and R.E. Veiga, 1989: Validation of SAGE II ozone measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 94, 8447-8460.

[17]McCormick, M.P., R.E. Veiga, and W.P. Chu, 1992: Stratospheric ozone profile and total ozone trends derived from the SAGE and SAGE II data. Geophys. Res. Letters, 19, 269-272.

[18]McClatchey, R.A., W. Fenn, J.E.A. Selby, F.E. Volz, and J.S. Garing, 1971: Optical properties of the atmosphere. AFGL-71-0279, Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Hanscom Air Force Base, Bedford, MA, 85 pp.

[19]Logan, J.A., 1985: Tropospheric ozone: Seasonal behavior, trends, and anthropogenic influences. J. Geophys. Res., 90, 10463-10482.

[20]Spivakovsky, C.M., R. Yevich, J.A. Logan, S.C. Wofsy, and M.B. McElroy, 1990: Tropospheric OH in a three-dimensional chemical tracer model: An assessment based on observations of CH3CCl3. J. Geophys. Res., 95, 18441-18471.

[21]Thompson, S.L., V. Ramaswamy, and C. Covey, 1987: Atmospheric effects of nuclear war aerosols in general circulation model simulations: Influence of smoke optical properties. J. Geophys. Res., 92, 10942-10960.

[22]Ramanathan, V., E. J. Pitcher, R.C. Malone, and M. Blackmon, 1983: The response of a general circulation model to refinements in radiative processes. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 605-630.

[23]Slingo, A., and J.M. Slingo, 1991: Response of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model to improvements in the representation of clouds. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 15341-15357.

[24]Henderson-Sellers, A., and K. McGuffie, 1990: Are cloud amounts estimated from satellite sensor and conventional surface-based observations related? Int. J. Remote Sens., 11, 543-550.

[25]Ramanathan, V., and P. Downey, 1986: A nonisothermal emissivity and absorptivity formulation for water vapor. J. Geophys. Res., 91, 8649-8666.

[26]Kiehl, J.T., and B.P. Briegleb, 1991: A new parameterization of the absorptance due to the 15 micron band system of carbon dioxide. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 9013-9019.

[27]Ramanathan, V., and R.E. Dickinson, 1979: The role of stratospheric ozone in the zonal and seasonal radiative energy balance of the Earth-troposphere system. J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 1084-1104.

[28]Wang, W.-C., M.P. Dudek, X.-Z. Liang, and J.T. Kiehl, 1991a: Inadequacy of effective CO2 as a proxy in simulating the greenhouse effect of other radiatively active gases. Nature, 350, 573-577.

[29] Wang, W.-C., G-Y. Shi, and J.T. Kiehl, 1991b: Incorporation of the thermal radiative effect of CH4, N2O, CF2Cl2, and CFCl3 into the NCAR Community Climate Model. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 9097-9103.

[30] Anthes, R.A., 1977: A cumulus parameterization scheme utilizing a one-dimensional model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 105, 270-286.

[31]Curry, J.A., and G.F. Herman, 1985: Relationships between large-scale heat and moisture budgets and the occurrence of Arctic stratus clouds. Mon. Wea. Rev., 113, 1441-1457.

[32]Thomas, G., and A. Henderson-Sellers, 1991: An evaluation of proposed representations of subgrid hydrologic processes in climate models. J. Climate, 4, 898-910.

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[34]Joseph, D., 1980: Navy 10' global elevation values. National Center for Atmospheric Research notes on the FNWC terrain data set, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 3 pp.

[35]Semtner, A.J., 1976: A model for the thermodynamic growth of sea ice in numerical investigations of climate. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6, 379-389.

[36]Briegleb, B.P., P. Minnis, V. Ramanathan, and E. Harrison, 1986: Comparison of regional clear-sky albedos inferred from satellite observations and model computations. J. Clim. Appl. Meteor., 25, 214-226.

[37]Harvey, L.D. D., 1988: Development of a sea-ice model for use in zonally averaged energy balance climate models. J. Climate, 1, 1221-1238.

[38]Maykut, G.A., and N. Untersteiner, 1971: Some results from a time-dependent thermodynamic model of sea ice. J. Geophys. Res., 76, 1550-1575.

[39]Webb, R.S., C.E. Rosenzweig, and E.R. Levine, 1993: Specifying land surface characteristics in general circulation models: Soil profile data set and derived water-holding capacities. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles, 7, 97-108.

[40]Briegleb, B.P., and V. Ramanathan, 1982: Spectral and diurnal variation in clear-sky planetary albedo. J. Appl. Meteor., 21, 1160-1171.

[41]Louis, J.-F., M. Tiedtke, J.-F. Geleyn, 1981: A short history of the PBL parameterisation at ECMWF. Proceedings of the ECMWF Workshop on Planetary Boundary Layer Parameterisation, November 1981, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, England, pp. 59-80.

[42]Clapp, R.B., and G.M. Hornberger, 1978: Empirical equations for some soil hydraulic properties. Water Resourc. Res., 14, 601-604.

[43]Abramopoulos, F., C. Rosenzweig, and B. Choudhury, 1988: Improved ground hydrology calculations for global climate models (GCMs): Soil water movement and evapotranspiration. J. Climate, 1, 921-941.

[44]Kreitzberg, C. W. and D. J. Perkey, 1976: Release of potential instability: Part I. A sequential plume model within a hydrostatic primitive equation. J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 456-475.

[45]Liang, X-Z., and W.-C. Wang, 1995: A GCM study of the climatic effect of 1979-1992 ozone trend. In Atmospheric Ozone as a Climate Gas, W.-C. Wang and I.S.A. Isaksen (eds.), NATO ASI Series, Vol. I32, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 259-288.

[46]Hack, J.J., B.A. Boville, B.P. Briegleb, J.T. Kiehl, P.J. Rasch, and D.L. Williamson, 1993: Description of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM2). NCAR Tech. Note, NCAR/TN-382+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 108 pp.

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