Naval Research Laboratory (NRL): References

[1]Hogan, T. F., and T. E. Rosmond, 1991: The description of the Navy operational global atmospheric prediction system's spectral forecast model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 119, 1786-1815.

[2]Simmons, A.J., and R. Strüfing, 1981: An energy and angular-momentum conserving finite difference scheme, hybrid coordinates and medium-range weather prediction. ECMWF Tech. Report No. 28, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, England, 68 pp.

[3]Robert, A.J., H. Henderson, and C. Turnbull, 1972: An implicit time integration scheme for baroclinic models of the atmosphere. Mon. Wea. Rev., 100, 329-335.

[4]Simmons, A.J., and M. Jarraud, 1983: The design and performance of the new ECMWF operational model. Proceedings of the ECMWF Workshop on Numerical Methods for Weather Prediction, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, England, 113-164.

[5]Louis, J.-F., M. Tiedtke, J.-F. Geleyn, 1981: A short history of the PBL parameterisation at ECMWF. Proceedings of the ECMWF Workshop on Planetary Boundary Layer Parameterisation, November 1981, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, England, pp. 59-80.

[6]Palmer, T.N., G.J. Shutts, R. Swinbank, 1986: Alleviation of a systematic westerly bias in general circulation and numerical weather prediction models through an orographic gravity wave drag parameterization. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 112, 1001-1039.

[7]Dopplick, T.G., 1974: Radiative heating in the atmosphere. In The General Circulation of the Tropical Atmosphere and Interactions with Extratropical Latitudes, Vol. 2. R.E. Newell, J.W. Kidson, D.G. Vincent, and G.J. Boer (eds.), M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, MA, 1-25.

[8]Davies, R., 1982: Documentation of the solar radiation parameterization in the GLAS climate model. NASA Tech. Memo. 83961, 57 pp. [Available from U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161.]

[9]Coakley, J.A. and P. Chylek, 1975: The two-stream approximation in radiative transfer: Including the angle of the incident radiation. J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 409-418.

[10]Lacis, A.A., and J. E. Hansen, 1974: A parameterization for the absorption of solar radiation in the Earth's atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 118-133.

[11]Sagan. C., and J.B. Pollack, 1967: Anisotropic nonconservative scattering and the clouds of Venus. J. Geophys. Res., 72, 466-477.

[12]Liou, K.-N., 1980: An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation. International Geophysics Series, 25, Academic Press, New York, 392 pp.

[13]Harshvardhan, R. Davies, D.A. Randall, and T.G. Corsetti, 1987: A fast radiation parameterization for general circulation models. J. Geophys. Res., 92, 1009-1016.

[14]Chou, M.-D., 1984: Broadband water vapor transmission functions for atmospheric IR flux computation. J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 1775-1778.

[15]Chou, M.-D., and L. Peng, 1983: A parameterization of the absorption in 15-micron CO2 spectral region with application to climate sensitivity studies. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 2183-2192.

[16]Rodgers, C.D., 1968: Some extensions and applications of the new random model for molecular band transmission. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 94, 99-102.

[17]Roberts, R.E., J.A. Selby, and L.M. Biberman, 1976: Infrared continuum absorption by atmospheric water vapor in the 8-12 micron window. Appl. Optics, 15, 2085-2090.

[18]Arakawa, A., and W.H. Schubert, 1974: Interaction of a cumulus cloud ensemble with the large scale environment, Part I. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 674-701.

[19]Lord, S.J., W.C. Chao, and A. Arakawa, 1982: Interaction of a cumulus cloud ensemble with the large-scale environment. Part IV: The discrete model. J. Atmos. Sci., 39, 104-113.

[20]Tiedtke, M., 1983: The sensitivity of the time-mean large-scale flow to cumulus convection in the ECMWF model. Proceedings of the ECMWF Workshop on Convection in Large-Scale Models, 28 November-1 December 1983, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, England, 297-316.

[21]Slingo, J.M., and B. Ritter, 1985: Cloud prediction in the ECMWF model. ECMWF Tech. Report No. 46, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, England, 48 pp.

[22]Slingo, J.M., 1987: The development and verification of a cloud prediction model for the ECMWF model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 113, 899-927.

[23]Haltiner, G.J., and R.T. Williams, 1980: Numerical Prediction and Dynamic Meteorology (second edition), John Wiley and Sons, New York, 477 pp.

[24]Joseph, D., 1980: Navy 10' global elevation values. National Center for Atmospheric Research notes on the FNWC terrain data set, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 3 pp.

[25]Lanczos, C., 1956: Applied Analysis. Prentice Hall, London, 539 pp.

[26]Charnock, H., 1955: Wind stress on a water surface. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 81, 639-640.

[27]FNOC, 1986: Fleet Numerical Oceanographic Center's Numerical Environmental Products Manual, Vols. I and II. Fleet Numerical Oceanographic Center, Monterey, CA, 214 pp.

[28]Hogan, T.F., and L.R. Brody, 1993: Sensitivity studies of the Navy's global forecast model parameterizations and evaluation of improvements to NOGAPS. Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 2373-2395.

[29]McPeters, R.D., D.F. Heath, and P.K. Bhartia, 1984: Averaged ozone profiles for 1979 from the NIMBUS 7 SBUV instrument. J. Geophys. Res., 89, 5199-5214.

[30]Twomey, S., and K.J. Seton, 1980: Inferences of gross microphysical properties of clouds from spectral reflectance measurements. J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 1065-1069.

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