NMC References

National Meteorological Center (NMC): References

[1]Pan, H-L., 1990: A simple parameterization scheme of evapotranspiration over land for the NMC Medium-Range Forecast Model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 2500-2512.

[2]Kanamitsu, M., J.C. Alpert, K.A. Campana, P.M. Caplan, D.G. Deaven, M. Iredell, B. Katz, H.-L. Pan, J. Sela, and G.H. White, 1991: Recent changes implemented into the global forecast system at NMC. Wea. and Forecast., 6, 425-435.

[3]NMC Development Division, 1988: Documentation of the research version of the NMC Medium-Range Forecasting model. NMC Development Division, National Meteorological Center, Camp Springs, MD, 504 pp.

[4]Kanamitsu, M., 1989: Description of the NMC global data assimilation and forecast system. Wea. and Forecast., 4, 335-342.

[5]Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, and W.E. Baker, 1990: Global numerical weather prediction at the National Meteorological Center. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 71, 1410-1428.

[6]Ebisuzaki, W., and H.M. van den Dool, 1993: The Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project at the National Meteorological Center. NMC Office Note 402, 19 pp [Available from NMC, Camp Springs, MD.]

[7]Machenhauer, B., 1977: On the dynamics of gravity oscillations in a shallow water model with applications to normal mode initialization. Beitr. Phys. Atmos., 50, 253-271.

[8]Asselin, R., 1972: Frequency filter for time integrations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 100, 487-490.

[9]van den Dool, H. M., and S. Saha, 1993: Seasonal redistribution and conservation of atmospheric mass in a general circulation model. J. Climate, 6, 22-30.

[10]Leith, C.E., 1971: Atmospheric predictability and two-dimensional turbulence. J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 145-161.

[11]Miyakoda, K., and J. Sirutis, 1986: Manual of the E-physics. [Available from Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 308, Princeton, NJ 08542.]

[12]Alpert, J.C., M. Kanamitsu, P.M. Caplan, J.G. Sela, G.H. White, and E. Kalnay, 1988: Mountain induced gravity wave drag parameterization in the NMC medium-range model. Preprints of the Eighth Conference on Numerical Weather Prediction, Baltimore, MD, American Meteorological Society, 726-733.

[13]Pierrehumbert, R.T., 1987: An essay on the parameterization of orographic wave drag. In Observation, Theory, and Modelling of Orographic Effects, Vol. 1. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, England, 251-282.

[14]Lindzen, R.S., 1981: Turbulence and stress due to gravity wave and tidal breakdown. J. Geophys. Res., 86, 9707-9714.

[15]Hering, W.S., and T.R. Borden, Jr., 1965: Mean distributions of ozone density over North America 1963-1964. Environ. Res. Pap. 162, U.S. Air force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Hanscom Field, Bedford, MA, 19 pp.

[16]London, J., 1962: Mesosphere Dynamics, 3: The distribution of total ozone in the Northern Hemisphere. Final Report, Department of Meteorology/Oceanography, New York University, New York, NY.

[17]Lacis, A.A., and J. E. Hansen, 1974: A parameterization for the absorption of solar radiation in the Earth's atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 118-133.

[18]Sasamori, T., J. London, and D.V. Hoyt, 1972: Radiation budget of the Southern Hemisphere. Meteorological Monographs, 35, American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 9-22.

[19]Fels, S.B., and M.D. Schwarzkopf, 1975: The simplified exchange approximation: A new method for radiative transfer calculations. J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 1475-1488.

[20]Schwarzkopf, M.D., and S.B. Fels, 1991: The simplified exchange method revisited: An accurate, rapid method for computation of infrared cooling rates and fluxes. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 9075-9096.

[21]Schwarzkopf, M.D., and S.B. Fels, 1985: Improvements to the algorithm for computing CO2 transmissivities and cooling rates. J. Geophys. Res., 90, 10541-10550.

[22]Roberts, R.E., J.A. Selby, and L.M. Biberman, 1976: Infrared continuum absorption by atmospheric water vapor in the 8-12 micron window. Appl. Optics, 15, 2085-2090.

[23]Rodgers, C.D., 1968: Some extension and applications of the new random model for molecular band transmission. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 94, 99-102.

[24]Kuo, H.L., 1965: On formation and intensification of tropical cyclones through latent heat release by cumulus convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 22, 40-63.

[25]Sela, J., 1980: Spectral modeling at the National Meteorological Center. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 1279-1292.

[26]Tiedtke, M., 1983: The sensitivity of the time-mean large-scale flow to cumulus convection in the ECMWF model. Proceedings of the ECMWF Workshop on Convection in Large-Scale Models, 28 November-1 December 1983, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, England, 297-316.

[27]Slingo, J.M., 1987: The development and verification of a cloud prediction model for the ECMWF model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 113, 899-927.

[28]Joseph, D., 1980: Navy 10' global elevation values. National Center for Atmospheric Research notes on the FNWC terrain data set, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 3 pp.

[29]Charnock, H., 1955: Wind stress on a water surface. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 81, 639-640.

[30]Dorman, J.L., and P.J. Sellers, 1989: A global climatology of albedo, roughness length and stomatal resistance for atmospheric general circulation models as represented by the Simple Biosphere model (SiB). J. Appl. Meteor., 28, 833-855.

[31]Payne, R.E., 1972: Albedo of the sea surface. J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 959-970.

[32]Monteith, J.L., 1965: Evaporation and environment. Symp. Soc. Exptl. Biol., 19, 205-234.

[33]Manabe, S., 1969: Climate and ocean circulation. 1. The atmospheric circulation and the hydrology of the Earth's surface. Mon. Wea. Rev., 97, 739-774..

[34]Savijarvi, H.I., 1995: Water mass forcing.Contrib. Atmos. Phys.., 68, 75-84.

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