GSFC Footnotes

Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC): References

[1]Schubert, S.D., R.B. Rood, and J. Pfaendtner, 1993: An assimilated dataset for Earth science applications. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 74, 2331-2342.

[2]Kalnay, E., M. Kanamitsu, J. Pfaendtner, J. Sela, M. Suarez, J. Stackpole, J. Tuccillo, L. Umscheid, and D. Williamson, 1989: Rules for the interchange of physical parameterizations. Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc., 70, 620-622.

[3]Fox-Rabinovitz, M., H.M. Helfand, A. Hou, L.L. Takacs, and A. Molod, 1991: Numerical experiments on forecasting climate simulation and data assimilation with the new 17 layer GLA GCM. Proceedings of the Ninth Numerical Weather Prediction Conference, American Meteorological Society, Denver, CO, 506-509.

[4]Helfand, H.M., M. Fox-Rabinovitz, L. Takacs, and A. Molod, 1991: Simulation of the planetary boundary layer and turbulence in the GLA GCM. Proceedings of the AMS Ninth Conference on Numerical Weather Prediction, 21-25 October 1991, Denver, CO, 514-517.

[5]Suarez, M.J., and L.L. Takacs, 1993: Documentation of the ARIES/GEOS dynamical core Version 2. NASA Tech. Memo., Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. [Available from M.J. Suarez, GSFC, Code 913, Greenbelt, MD 20771.]

[6]Harshvardhan, R. Davies, D.A. Randall, and T.G. Corsetti, 1987: A fast radiation parameterization for general circulation models. J. Geophys. Res., 92, 1009-1016.

[7]Moorthi, S., and M.J. Suarez, 1992: Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert: A parameterization of moist convection for general circulation models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 120, 978-1002.

[8]Sud, Y.C., and A. Molod, 1988: The roles of dry convection, cloud-radiation feedback processes and the influence of recent improvements in the parameterization of convection in the GLA GCM. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 2366-2387.

[9]Helfand, H.M., and J.C. Labraga, 1988: Design of a non-singular level 2.5 second order closure model for prediction of atmospheric turbulence. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 113-132.

[10]Burridge, D.M., and J. Haseler, 1977: A model for medium-range weather forecasting: adiabatic formulation. Tech. Report No. 4, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Bracknell, Berkshire, UK.

[11]Arakawa, A., and M.J. Suarez, 1983: Vertical differencing of the primitive equations in sigma coordinates. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 34-45.

[12]Schemm, J., S. Schubert, J. Terry, and S. Bloom, 1992: Estimates of monthly mean soil moisture for 1979-1989. NASA Tech. Memo. No. 104571, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 252 pp.

[13]Asselin, R., 1972: Frequency filter for time integrations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 100, 487-490.

[14]Shapiro, R., 1970: Smoothing, filtering and boundary effects. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 8, 359-387.

[15]Sadourny, R., 1975: The dynamics of finite difference models of the shallow water equations. J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 680-689.

[16]Arakawa, A., and V.R. Lamb, 1981: A potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 18-36.

[17]Rosenfield, J.E., M.R. Schoeberl, and M.A. Geller, 1987: A computation of the stratospheric diabatic circulation using an accurate radiative transfer model. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 859-876.

[18]Davies, R., 1982: Documentation of the solar radiation parameterization in the GLAS climate model. NASA Tech. Memo. 83961, 57 pp. [Available from U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161.]

[19]Lacis, A.A., and J. E. Hansen, 1974: A parameterization for the absorption of solar radiation in the Earth's atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 118-133.

[20]Chou, M.-D., 1984: Broadband water vapor transmission functions for atmospheric IR flux computation. J. Atmos. Sci., 41, 1775-1778.

[21]Chou, M.-D, and L. Peng, 1983: A parameterization of the absorption in 15-micron CO2 spectral region with application to climate sensitivity studies. J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 2183-2192.

[22]Rodgers, C.D., 1968: Some extension and applications of the new random model for molecular band transmission. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 94, 99-102.

[23]Meador, W., and W.R. Weaver, 1980: Two-stream approximations to radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres: A unified description of existing methods and a new improvement. J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 630-643.

[24]Arakawa, A., and W.H. Schubert, 1974: Interaction of a cumulus cloud ensemble with the large scale environment, Part I. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 674-701.

[25]Joseph, D., 1980: Navy 10' global elevation values. National Center for Atmospheric Research notes on the FNWC terrain data set, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 3 pp.

[26]Lanczos, C., 1966: Discourse on Fourier Series. Hafner Publishing, 255 pp.

[27]Matson, M., 1978: Winter snow-cover maps of North America and Eurasia, 1966-1976. National Environmental Satellite Service, Washington, D.C.

[28]Dorman, J.L., and P.J. Sellers, 1989: A global climatology of albedo, roughness length and stomatal resistance for atmospheric general circulation models as represented by the Simple Biosphere model (SiB). J. Appl. Meteor., 28, 833-855.

[29]Large, W.G., and S. Pond, 1981: Open ocean momentum flux measurements in moderate to strong winds. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11, 324-336.

[30]Kondo, J. 1975: Air-sea bulk transfer coefficients in diabatic conditions. Boundary Layer Meteor., 9, 91-112.

[31]Posey, T.W., and P.F. Clapp, 1964: Global distribution of normal surface albedo. Geofis. Int., 4, 33-48.

[32]Kitzmiller, D.H., 1979: GMSF general ciruclation model's 12-month surface albedo dataset. Internal Report, Goddard Modeling and Simulation Facility, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD.

[33]Panofsky, H.A., 1973: Tower Micrometeorology. In Workshop on Micrometeorology, D.A. Haugen (ed.), American Meteorology Society, Boston, 392 pp.

[34]Clarke, R.H., 1970: Observational studies in the atmospheric boundary layer. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 96, 91-114.

[35]Yaglom, A.M., and B.A. Kader, 1974: Heat and mass transfer between a rough wall and turbulent fluid flow at high Reynolds and Peclet numbers. J. Fluid Mech., 62, 601-623.

[36]Helfand, H.M., 1985: A new scheme for the parameterization of the turbulent planetary boundary in the GLAS fourth order GCM. In Preprints of the Seventh Conference on Numerical Weather Prediction, American Meteorological Society, Montreal.

[37]Mintz, Y., and Y. Serafini, 1984: Global fields of monthly normal soil moisture as derived from observed precipitation and an estimated potential evapotranspiration. Final scientific report under NASA grant NAS 5-26, Part V, Dept. of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park.

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Last modified September 12, 1995. For further information, contact: Tom Phillips ( )

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