GFDL footnotes

Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL): References

[1]Gordon, C.T., and W.F. Stern, 1982: A description of the GFDL global spectral model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 110, 625-644.

[2]Miyakoda, K., and J. Sirutis, 1986: Manual of the E-physics. Available from Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 308, Princeton, NJ 08542.

[3]Manabe, S., and D.G. Hahn, 1981: Simulation of atmospheric variability. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 2260-2286.

[4]Manabe, S., 1969: Climate and ocean circulation. I. The atmospheric circulation and the hydrology of the earth's surface. Mon. Wea. Rev., 97, 739-774.

[5]Holloway, J.L., Jr., and S. Manabe, 1971: Simulation of climate by a general circulation model. I. Hydrological cycle and heat balance. Mon. Wea. Rev., 99, 335-370.

[6]Manabe, S., and J.L. Holloway, 1975: The seasonal variation of the hydrologic cycle as simulated by a global model of the atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 80, 1617-1649.

[7]Manabe, S., J. Smagorinsky, and R.F. Strickler, 1965: Simulated climatology of a general circulation model with a hydrologic cycle. Mon. Wea. Rev., 93, 769-798.

[8]Broccoli, A.J., and S. Manabe, 1992: The effects of orography on midlatitude northern hemisphere dry climates. J. Climate, 5, 1181-1201.

[9]Wetherald, R.T., and S. Manabe, 1988: Cloud feedback processes in a general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 1397-1415.

[10]Wetherald, R.T., V. Ramaswamy, and S. Manabe, 1991: A comparative study of the observations of high clouds and simulations by an atmospheric general circulation model. Clim. Dynam., 5, 135-143.

[11]Alexander, R.C., and R.L. Mobley, 1976: Monthly average sea-surface temperatures and ice-pack limits on a 1 degree global grid. Mon. Wea. Rev., 104, 143-148.

[12]Bourke, W.P., 1974: A multi-level spectral model, 1: Formulation and hemispheric integrations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 102, 687-701.

[13]Asselin, R., 1972: Frequency filter for time integrations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 100, 487-490.

[14]Hering, W.S., and T.R. Borden, Jr., 1965: Mean distributions of ozone density over North America 1963-1964. Environ. Res. Pap. 162, U.S. Air force Cambridge Research Laboratory, Hanscom Field, Bedford, MA, 19 pp.

[15]Lacis, A.A., and J. E. Hansen, 1974: A parameterization for the absorption of solar radiation in the Earth's atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 118-133.

[16]Rodgers, C.D., and C.D. Walshaw, 1966: The computation of infra-red cooling rate in planetary atmospheres. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 92, 67-92.

[17]Stone, H. M., and S. Manabe, 1968: Comparison among various numerical models designed for computing infrared cooling. Mon. Wea. Rev., 96, 735-741.

[18]Burch, D.E., D. Gryvnak, and D. Williams, 1961: Infrared absorption by carbon dioxide. Contract AF19(604)-2633, AFCRL-255, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

[19]Sasamori, T., 1959: The temperature effect of the absorption of the 15-micron carbon-dioxide band. Science Reports of the Tohoku Univeristy, Geophysics Ser. 5, Vol. 11, 149-161.

[20]Walshaw, C.D., 1957: Integrated absorption by the 9.6 micron band of ozone. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 83, 315-321.

[21]Rodgers, C.D., 1967a: The radiative heat budget of the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Report No. 2, Department of Meteorology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 99 pp.

[22]Kondratiev, K. Ya., 1972: Radiation processes in the atmosphere. WMO-No. 309, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 214 pp.

[23]Joseph, D., 1980: Navy 10' global elevation values. National Center for Atmospheric Research notes on the FNWC terrain data set, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 3 pp.

[24]Charnock, H., 1955: Wind stress on a water surface. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 81, 639-640.

[25]Payne, R.E., 1972: Albedo of the sea surface. J. Atmos. Sci., 29, 959-970.

[26]Posey, T.W., and P.F. Clapp, 1964: Global distribution of normal surface albedo. Geofis. Int., 4, 33-48.

[27]Delsol, F., K. Miyakoda, and R.H. Clarke, 1971: Parameterized processes in the surface boundary layer of an atmospheric circulation model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 97, 181-208.

Return to GFDL Table of Contents

Return to Main Document Directory

Last modified September 12, 1995. For further information, contact: Tom Phillips ( )

LLNL Disclaimers