CSIRO Footnotes

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO): References

[1]Gordon, H.B., 1981: A flux formulation of the spectral atmospheric equations suitable for use in long term climate modelling. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 56-64.

[2]Gordon, H.B., 1993: The CSIRO 4-level atmospheric general circulation model. CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Tech. Paper No. 28, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, PMB1, Mordialloc, Victoria 3195, Australia.

[3]McGregor, J.L., H.B. Gordon, I.G. Watterson, M.R. Dix, and L.D. Rotstayn, 1993: The CSIRO 9-level Atmospheric General Circulation Model. CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research Technical Paper No. 26, CSIRO, PMB1, Mordialloc, Victoria 3195, Australia, 89 pp.

[4]Asselin, R., 1972: Frequency filter for time integrations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 100, 487-490.

[5]Royer, J-F., 1986: Correction of negative mixing ratios in spectral models by global horizontal borrowing. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114, 1406-1410.

[6]Blackadar, A.K., 1962: The vertical distribution of wind and turbulent exchange in a neutral atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 67, 3095-3102.

[7]Louis, J.-F., 1979: A parametric model of vertical eddy fluxes in the atmosphere. Bound. Layer Meteor., 17, 187-202.

[8]Chouinard, C., M. Beland, and N. McFarlane, 1986: A simple gravity wave drag parameterization for use in medium-range forecast models. Atmos.-Ocean, 24, 91-110.

[9]Palmer, T.N., G.J. Shutts, R. Swinbank, 1986: Alleviation of a systematic westerly bias in general circulation and numerical weather prediction models through an orographic gravity wave drag parameterization. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 112, 1001-1039.

[10]Dopplick, T.G., 1974: Radiative heating in the atmosphere. In The General Circulation of the Tropical Atmosphere and Interactions with Extratropical Latitudes, Vol. 2. R.E. Newell, J.W. Kidson, D.G. Vincent, and G.J. Boer (eds.), M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, MA, 1-25.

[11]Fels, S.B., 1985: Radiative-dynamical interactions in the middle atmosphere. In Issues in Atmospheric and Oceanic Modeling, S. Manabe (ed.), Adv. Geophys., 28A, Academic Press, New York, 277-300.

[12]Fels, S.B., and M.D. Schwarzkopf, 1975: The simplified exchange approximation: A new method for radiative transfer calculations. J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 1475-1488.

[13]Fels, S.B., and M.D. Schwarzkopf, 1981: An efficient, accurate algorithm for calculating CO2 15-micron band cooling rates. J. Geophys. Res., 86(C2), 1205-1232.

[14]Schwarzkopf, M.D., and S.B. Fels, 1991: The simplified exchange method revisited: An accurate, rapid method for computation of infrared cooling rates and fluxes. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 9075-9096.

[15]Lacis, A.A., and J. E. Hansen, 1974: A parameterization for the absorption of solar radiation in the Earth's atmosphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 118-133.

[16]Sasamori, T., J. London, and D.V. Hoyt, 1972: Radiation budget of the Southern Hemisphere. Meteorological Monographs, 35, American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 9-22.

[17]Arakawa, A., 1972: Design of the UCLA general circulation model. Tech. Report No. 7, Department of Meteorology, University of California at Los Angeles, 116 pp.

[18]Geleyn, J.-F., 1987: Use of a modified Richardson number for parameterizing the effect of shallow convection. Short- and Medium-Range Numerical Weather Prediction (Special Volume of J. Meteor. Soc. Japan), T. Matsuno (ed.), 141-149.

[19]Rikus, L., 1991: The role of clouds in global climate modelling. BMRC Report No. 25, Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia, 37 pp.

[20]Saito, K and A. Baba, 1988: A statistical relation between relative humidity and the GMS observed cloud amount. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 66, 187-192.

[21]Slingo, J.M., 1987: The development and verification of a cloud prediction model for the ECMWF model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 113, 899-927.

[22]Gates, W.L., and A.B. Nelson, 1975: A new (revised) tabulation of the Scripps topography on a one-degree global grid. Part 1: Terrain heights. Tech. Report R-1276-1-ARPA, The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, 132 pp.

[23]Charnock, H., 1955: Wind stress on a water surface. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 81, 639-640.

[24]Washington, W.M., and G.A. Meehl, 1984: A seasonal cycle experiment on the climate sensitivity due to a doubling of CO2 with an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a simple mixed layer ocean model. J. Geophys. Res., 89, 9475-9503.

[25]Posey, T.W., and P.F. Clapp, 1964: Global distribution of normal surface albedo. Geofis. Int., 4, 33-48.

[26]Deardorff, J.W., 1977: A parameterization of ground-surface moisture content for use in atmospheric prediction models. J. Appl. Meteor., 16, 1182-1185.

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