CCSR References

Center for Climate System Research (CCSR): References

[1]Numaguti, A., 1993: Dynamics and energy balance of the Hadley circulation and the tropical precipitation zones: Significance of the distribution of evaporation. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 1874-1887.

[2]Numaguti, A., M. Takahashi, T. Nakajima, and A. Sumi, 1995: Description of CCSR/NIES AGCM. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan (submitted).

[3] Bourke, W.P., 1988: Spectral methods in climate models. In Physically-Based Modelling and Simulation of Climate and Climatic Change, Part 1. M.E. Schlesinger (ed.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 375-431.

[4]Nakajima, T., and M. Tanaka, 1986: Matrix formulation for the transfer of solar radiation in a plane-parallel scattering atmosphere. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 35, 13-21.

[5]Nakajima, T., M. Tsukamoto, Y. Tsushima, and A. Numaguti, 1996: Modelling of the radiative processes in an AGCM. J. Atmos. Sci. (submitted).

[6]Arakawa, A., and W.H. Schubert, 1974: Interaction of a cumulus cloud ensemble with the large scale environment, Part I. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 674-701.

[7]Moorthi, S., and M.J. Suarez, 1992: Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert: A parameterization of moist convection for general circulation models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 120, 978-1002.

[8]Le Treut, H., and Z.-X. Li, 1991: Sensitivity of an atmospheric general circulation model to prescribed SST changes: feedback effects associated with the simulation of cloud optical properties. Clim. Dynam., 5, 175-187.

[9]McFarlane, N.A., 1987: The effect of orographically excited gravity-wave drag on the circulation of the lower stratosphere and troposphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 1775-1800.

[10]Mellor, G.L., and T. Yamada, 1974: A hierarchy of turbulence closure models for planetary boundary layers. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 1791-1806.

[11]Mellor, G.L., and T. Yamada, 1982: Development of a turbulent closure model for geophysical fluid problems. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 20, 851-875.

[12]Louis, J.-F., 1979: A parametric model of vertical eddy fluxes in the atmosphere. Bound. Layer Meteor., 17, 187-202.

[13]Miller, M.J., A.C.M. Beljaars and T.N. Palmer, 1992: The sensitivity of the ECMWF model to the parameterization of evaporation from the tropical oceans. J. Climate, 5, 418-434.

[14]Arakawa, A., and M.J. Suarez, 1983: Vertical differencing of the primitive equations in sigma coordinates. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 34-45.

[15]Kessler, E., 1969: On the distribution and continuity of water substance in atmospheric circulation. Meteorological Monographs, 10, American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA.

[16]Matthews, E., 1983: Global vegetation and land use: New high-resolution data bases for climate studies. J. Clim. Appl. Meteor., 22, 474-487.

[17]Manabe, S., J. Smagorinsky, and R.F. Strickler, 1965: Simulated climatology of a general circulation model with a hydrologic cycle. Mon. Wea. Rev., 93, 769-798.

[18]Asselin, R., 1972: Frequency filter for time integrations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 100, 487-490.

[19]Keating, G.M., and D.F. Young, 1985: Interim reference models for the middle atmosphere. In Handbook for the Middle Atmosphere Programme (MAP), Vol. 16, ICSU Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP), 205-229. [Available from SCOSTEP Secretariat, University of Illinois, 1406 W. Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801.]

[20]Dütsch, H.U., 1978: Vertical ozone distribution on a global scale. Pure Appl. Geophys., 116, 511-529.

[21]Takeuchi, K., and T. Kondo, 1981:Atmospheric Sciences (in Japanese), Tokyo University Press, Tokyo, 226 pp.

[22]NOAA/NGDC, 1989: Integrated Global Elevation and Bathymetry. Digital Data. NOAA/NGDC/WDC-A, Boulder, CO.

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Last update October 2, 1996. For further information, contact: Tom Phillips ( )

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