Gleckler95b Gleckler, P. J., D. Randall, G. Boer, R. Colman, M. Dix, V. Galin, M. Helfand, J. Kiehl, A. Kitoh, W. Lau, X. -Z. Liang, V. Lykossov, B. McAvaney, K. Miyakoda, S. Planton, and W. Stern, 1995: Cloud-radiative effects on implied oceanic energy transports as simulated by atmospheric general circulation models, Geophysical Research Letters, 22, 791-794 

This paper summarizes the ocean surface net energy flux simulated by fifteen atmospheric general circulation models constrained by realistically-varying sea surface temperatures and sea ice as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. In general, the simulated energy fluxes are within the very large observational uncertainties. However, the annual mean oceanic meridional heat transport that would be required to balance the simulated surface fluxes is shown to be critically sensitive to the radiative effects of clouds, to the extent that even the sign of the Southern Hemisphere ocean heat transport can be affected by the errors in simulated cloud-radiation interactions. It is suggested that improved treatment of cloud radiative effects should help in the development of coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models.