Druyan95 Druyan, L. M., K.Shah, K-W.Lo, J. Marengo and G. Russell, 1995: Impacts of model improvements on general circulation model sensitivity to sea-surface temperature forcing. International Journal of Climatology, 15, 1061-1086.

The sensitivity of the 4° x 5° resolution general circulation model of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies to some basic changes in model formulation was studied by comparing parallel simulations forced by global sea-surface temperature of June-August 1987 and 1988. The new modelling schemes were substituted for the control model's parameterizations of moist convection, planetary boundary layer, ground hydrology, and cloud optical thickness in a series of sensitivity experiments. In addition, linear and quadratic upstream schemes for advecting tracers were tried in place of second-order differencing. Elimination of the vertical mixing of horizontal momentum by moist convection was also tested. Impacts of the new modelling schemes on simulated circulation, temperature, and precipitation rates were inferred from pairs of simulations made by model versions that differed with respect to a single change. No discernible positive impacts were found for the new ground hydrology scheme or for changes in the determination of cloud optical thickness. Profiles of zonal wind speeds and lower tropospheric circulation patterns, both in the tropics, were more realistic when the vertical mixing of horizontal momentum was included. Major improvements in modelling the interannual variability of the planetary circulation, mid-tropospheric temperature, and precipitation can be attributed to the salutary effects of the new moist convection, new planetary boundary layer, and the quadratic upstream scheme for advecting tracers.