Barnett97 Barnett, T. P., K. Arpe, L. Bengtsson, M. Ji and A. Kumar, 1997:  Potential Predictability and AMIP implications of midlatitude climate variability in two general circulation models. Journal of Climate,10, 2321-2322.

Ensembles of extended Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) runs from the general circulation models of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (formerly the National Meteorological Center) and the Max-Planck institute (Hamburg, Germany) are used to estimate the potential predictability (PP) of an index of the Pacific-North America (PNA) mode of climate change. The PP of this pattern in "perfect'' prediction experiments is 20-25 % of the index's variance. The models, particularly that from MPI, capture virtually all of this variance in their hindcasts of the winter PNA for the period 1970-93.

The high levels of internally generated model noise in the PNA simulations reconfirm the need for an ensemble averaging approach to climate prediction. This means that the forecasts ought to be expressed in a probabilistic manner It is shown that the models' skills are higher by about 50% during strong SST events in the tropical Pacific, so the probabilistic forecasts need to be conditional on the tropical SST.

Taken together with earlier studies, the present results suggest that the original set of AMIP integrations (single 10-yr runs) is not adequate to reliably test the participating models' simulations of interannual climate variability in the midlatitudes.