Model NCAR (CSM): Elaborations


Model NCAR (CSM) is an entry in both the CMIP1 and CMIP2 intercomparisons, and also is supplying an optional extended set of output data in compliance with the CMIP2+ initiative.


The spinup/initialization procedure for the CMIP I intercomparison experiment was as follows (cf. Boville and Gent 1998 and NCAR Oceanography Section 1996 for further details):

Land Surface Processes

Land surface processes are simulated by the Land Surface Model (LSM) of Bonan (1996 , 1998). See also Web site for summary documentation and other information.

Sea Ice

Chief Differences from Closest AMIP Model

The NCAR (CSM) coupled model includes the NCAR Community Climate Model Version 3 (CCM3) as its atmospheric component (see also Web site The chief differences between CCM3 and AMIP model NCAR CCM2 (T42 L18) 1992 include: For further details on the NCAR (CSM) model, see Web site


Bettge, T.W., J.W. Weatherly, W.M. Washington, D. Pollard, B.P Briegleb, and W.G. Strand, 1996: The NCAR CSM Sea Ice Model.  NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-425+STR, 25 pp.

Bishop, J.K.B., and W.B. Rossow, 1991: Spatial and temporal variability of global surface solar irradiance. J. Geophys. Res., 96, 16,839-16,858.

Bonan, G.B., 1996: A Land Surface Model (LSM Version 1.0) for Ecological, Hydrological, and Atmospheric Studies: Technical Description and User's Guide. NCAR Technical Note NCAR/Tn-417+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, 150 pp.

Bonan, G.B., 1998: The land surface climatology of the NCAR land surface model (LSM 1.0) coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM3). J. Climate, 11, 1307-1326.

Boville, B.A., and P.R. Gent, 1998: The NCAR Climate System Model, Version One. J. Climate, 11,1115-1130.

Flato, G.M., and W.D. Hibler, 1990: On a simple sea-ice dynamics model for climate studies.  Ann. Glaciol., 14, 72-77.

Hack, J. J., and A.A.M. Holtslag, 1998: Climate simulation sensitivity to a revised non-local boundary layer parameterization. In preparation.

Hack, J.J., J.T. Kiehl, and J. Hurrell, 1998: The hydrologic and thermodynamic structure of the NCAR CCM3. J. Climate, 11,  1179-1206.

Kalnay, E.C., M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K.C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, A. Leetmaa, R. Reynolds, and R. Jenne, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis project. Bull. Am Meteor. Soc., 77, 437-471.

Kiehl, J.T., J.J. Hack, G. Bonan, B.A. Boville, D. Williamson, and P. Rasch, 1998a: The National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model: CCM3. J. Climate, 11, 1131-1149.

Kiehl, J.T., J.J. Hack, and J. Hurrell, 1998b: The energy budget of the NCAR Community Climate Model: CCM3. J. Climate, 11, 1151-1178.

Levitus, S., 1982: Climatological atlas of the world's oceans. NOAA Professional Paper 13, 173 pp.

NCAR Oceanography Section (NCAR OS), 1996: The NCAR CSM ocean model. NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-423+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado.

Parkinson, C.L. and W.M. Washington, 1979: A large-scale numerical model of sea ice. J. Geophys. Res., 84, 311-337.

Pollard, D., and S.L. Thompson, 1994: Sea-ice dynamics and CO2 sensitivity in a global climate model. Atmosphere-Ocean 32, 449-467.

Rossow,W.B., and R.A. Schiffer, 1991: ISCCP cloud data products. Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc., 72, 2-20.

Semtner, A.J., 1976: A model for the thermodynamic growth of sea ice in numerical investigations of climate.  J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6, 379-389.

Shea, D.J., K.E. Trenberth, and R.W. Reynolds, 1990: A global monthly sea surface temperature climatology. NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-345, 167 pp.

Spencer, R.W., 1993: Global oceanic precipitation from the MSU during 1979-91 and comparisons to other climatologies. J. Climate, 6, 13021-1326.

Washington, W.M., and G.A. Meehl, 1996: High-latitude climate change in a global coupled ocean-atmosphere-sea ice model with increased atmospheric CO2. J. Geophys. Res.,
101(D8), 12,795-12,801.

Zhang, G.J., and N.A. McFarlane, 1995: Sensitivity of climate simulations to the parameterization of cumulus convection in the Canadian Climate Centre general circulation model. Atmos. Ocean, 33, 407-446.


CMIP Documentation Directory

Last update 15 May, 2002.  For questions or comments, contact Tom Phillips (

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