Model CSIRO: Elaborations



Model CSIRO is an entry in both the CMIP1 and CMIP2 intercomparisons.


The procedure for spinup/initialization to the simulation starting point of the CSIRO coupled model is as follows (reference: Gordon and O'Farrell 1997):

Land Surface Processes

The land surface scheme is after Kowalczyk et al. (1991,1994).

Sea Ice


Ocean Component


Details of the CMIP Integrations

Chief Differences from the Closest AMIP Model

Horizontal Representation

In contrast to AMIP model CSIRO CSIRO9 Mark 1 (R21 L9), the representation of atmospheric moisture transport is semi-Lagrangian.

Sea Ice

A dynamic/thermodynamic sea ice model after O'Farrell (1998) replaces the formulation of the AMIP model.

Land Surface Processes

Land surface processes related to hydrology and vegetation differ from those in the AMIP model.


Bryan, K., S. Manabe, and R.C. Pacanowski, 1975: A global ocean-atmosphere climate model. Part II: The ocean circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 5, 30-46.

Cox, M.D., 1984: A primitive equation, 3-dimensional model of the ocean. GFDL Ocean Group Tech. Rep. 1, GFDL/Princeton University, Princeton , N.J., 141 pp. [Available from Geophysics Fluid Dynamics Laboratory/NOAA, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08542.]

Cox, M.D., 1987: Isopycnal diffusion in a z-coordinate ocean model. Ocean Modelling, 74, 1-15.

Dorman, J.L., and P.J. Sellers, 1989: A global climatology of albedo, roughness length and stomatal resistance for atmospheric general circulation models as represented by the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB). J. Appl. Meteor., 28, 833-855.

Flato, G.M., and W.D. Hibler 1990: On a simple sea-ice dynamics model for climate studies. Ann. Glaciol., 14, 72-77.

Gargett, A.E., 1984: Vertical eddy diffusivity in the ocean interior. J. Mar. Res., 42, 359-393.

Gent, P.R., and J.C. McWilliams, 1990: Isopycnal mixing in ocean circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 20, 150-155.

Gent, P.R., J. Willebrand, T.J. McDougall and J.C. McWilliams, 1995: Parameterising eddy-induced tracer transports in ocean circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 463-474.

Gordon, H.B., and S.P. O'Farrell, 1997:  Transient climate change in the CSIRO coupled model with dynamic sea ice, Monthly Weather Review, 125, 875-907.

Hellerman, S., and M. Rosenstein, 1983: Normal monthly wind stress over the world ocean with error estimates. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13, 1093-1104.

Hirst A.C., H. B. Gordon, and S.P. O'Farrell, 1996: Global warming in a coupled climate model including oceanic eddy-induced advection. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 3361-3364.

Hirst A.C., 1999: The Southern Ocean response to global warming in the CSIRO coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Environ. Modeling and Software: Special Issue on Modelling Global Climatic Change, 14, 227-242.

Hirst, A.C., S.P. O'Farrell and H.B. Gordon, 2000: Comparison of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model with and without oceanic eddy-induced advection. Part I: Ocean Spinup and control integrations. J. Climate, 13, 139-163.

Kowalczyk, E.A., J.R. Garratt, and P.B. Krummel, 1991: A soil-canopy scheme for use in a numerical model of the atmosphere--1 D stand-alone model. CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research Technical Paper No. 23, 56 pp.

Kowalczyk, E.A., J.R. Garratt, and P.B. Krummel, 1994: Implementation of a soil-canopy scheme into the CSIRO GCM-Regional aspects of the model response. CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research Technical Paper No. 32, 59 pp.

Ledley, T.S., 1985: Sea ice: Multiyear cycles and white ice.  J. Geophys. Res., 90, 5,676-5686.

Levitus, S., 1982: Climatological atlas of the world's oceans. NOAA Professional Paper 13, 173 pp.

McGregor, J.L., H.B. Gordon, I.G. Watterson, M.R. Dix, and L.D. Rotstayn, 1993: The CSIRO 9-level atmospheric general circulation model. CSIRO Division of Atmosheric Research Technical Paper No. 26, 89 pp.

Noilhan, J., and S. Planton, 1989: A simple parameterization of land surface processes for meteorological models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117, 536-549.

O'Farrell, S.P., 1998: Investigation of the dynamic sea ice component of a coupled atmosphere sea-ice general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res. (Oceans), 103, 15751-15782.

Redi, M.H., 1982: Oceanic isopycnal mixing by coordinate rotation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 12, 1154-1158.

Sausen, R., K. Barthel, and K. Hasselman, 1988: Coupled ocean-atmosphere models with flux correction. Climate Dyn., 2, 145-163.

Semtner, A.J., 1976: A model for the thermodynamic growth of sea ice in numerical investigations of climate.  J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6, 379-389.


CMIP Documentation Directory

Last update 15 May, 2002.  This page is maintained by Tom Phillips (

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