Model ECHAM4+OPYC3: Elborations

Note: The ECHAM4 + OPYC3 model was jointly sponsored by the Max Planck Institut für Meteorologie (MPI) and the Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ).


Model ECHAM4+OPYC3 is an entry in both the CMIP1 and CMIP2 intercomparisons.


The procedure for spinup/initialization was as follows (cf. Roeckner et al. 1996 for further details):

Land Surface Processes

Sea Ice


Bauer, H., E. Heise, J. Pfaendtner, and V. Renner, 1985: Development of an economical soil model for climate simulation. In Current Issues in Climate Research (Proceedings of the EC Climatology Programme Symposium, held 2-5 Oct. 1984, in Sophia Antipolis, France), A. Ghazi and R. Fantechi (eds.), D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 219-226.

Dümenil, L., and E. Todini, 1992: A rainfall-runoff scheme for use in the Hamburg climate model. In Advances in Theoretical Hydrology: A Tribute to James Dooge, J.P. O'Kane (ed.), European Geophysical Society Series on Hydrological Sciences, Vol. 1, Elsevier Press, Amsterdam, 129-157.

Hibler, 1979: A dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 9: 817-846.

Levitus, S., 1982: Climatological atlas of the world's oceans. NOAA Professional Paper 13, 173 pp.

Manabe, S., 1969: Climate and ocean circulation. 1. The atmospheric circulation and the hydrology of the Earth's surface.Mon. Wea. Rev., 97, 739-774.

Oberhuber, J.M., 1988: An atlas based on the 'COADS' data set: The budgets of heat, buoyancy and turbulent kinetic energy at the surface of the global ocean. Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Report 15, Hamburg, Germany.

Oberhuber, J. M., 1993a: Simulation of the Atlantic circulation with a coupled sea-ice-mixed layer-isopycnical general circulation model. Part I: model description. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 808-829.

Oberhuber, J.M., 1993b: Simulation of the Atlantic circulation with a coupled sea-ice-mixed layer-isopycnical general circulation model. Part II: model experiment. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 23, 830-845.

Patterson, K.A., 1990: Global distributions of total and total-available soil water-holding capacities. M.S. thesis, Department of Geography, University of Deleware, Newark, DE, 119 pp.

Roeckner, E., J.M. Oberhuber, A Bacher, M. Christoph, and I. Kirchner, 1996: ENSO variability and atmospheric response in a global coupled atmosphere-ocean GCM. Climate Dyn., 12, 737-754.

Sausen, R., S. Schubert, and L. Dümenil, 1994: A model of the river runoff for use in coupled atmosphere-ocean models. J. Hydrology, 155, 337-352.

Warrilow, D.A., A.B. Sangster, and A. Slingo, 1986: Modelling of land surface processes and their influence on European climate. DCTN 38, Dynamical Climatology Branch, United Kingdom Meteorological Office, Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 2SZ, UK.

Zobler, L., 1986: A world soil file for global climate modeling, NASA Technical Memorandum 87802, Washington, D.C., 32 pp.

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