Model GISS (Russell): Elaborations


Model GISS (Russell) is an entry in both the CMIP1 and CMIP2 intercomparisons.


The procedure for spinup/initialization to the simulation starting point of the coupled model is as follows (cf. Russell et al. 1995).

Land Surface Processes

Sea Ice

Chief Differences from Closest AMIP Model

In model development history, the atmospheric model is situated "between" the GISS Model II (described by Hansen et al. 1983) and AMIP model GISS Model II Prime (4x5 L9) 1994. Cf. Russell et al. (1995) for further details.

The chief differences from this AMIP model include:


Abramopoulos, F., C. Rosenzweig, and B. Choudhury, 1988: Improved ground hydrology calculations for global climate models (GCMs): Soil water movement and evapotranspiration. J. Climate, 1, 921-941. (Abstract)

Alexander, R.C., and R.L. Mobley, 1976: Monthly average sea-surface temperatures and ice-pack limits on a 1 degrees global grid. Mon. Wea. Rev., 104, 143-148.

Hansen, J., G. russell, D. Rind, P. Stone, A. Lacis, S. Lebedeff, R. Ruedy, and L. Travis, 1983: Efficient three-dimensional global models for climatic studies: Models I and II. Mon. Weather Rev., 111, 609-662.

Hansen, J.; I. Fung, A. Lacis, S. Lebedeff, D. Rind, R. Ruedy, and G. Russell. 1988.  Global climate changes as forecast by the Giss 3-D model. J.Geophys.Res.92: 14739-14760.

Levitus, S., 1982: Climatological atlas of the world's oceans. NOAA Professional Paper 13, 173 pp.

Matthews, E., 1983: Global vegetation and land use: New high-resolution data bases for climate studies. J. Clim. Appl. Meteor., 22, 474-487. (Abstract)

Matthews, E., 1984: Vegetation, land-use, and seasonal albedo data sets: Documentation of archived data tape. NASA Tech. Memo. 86107, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 20 pp.

Miller, J.R., G.L. Russell, and G. Caliri, 1994: Continental scale river flow in climate models. J. Climate, 7, 914-928.

Russell, G.L., and J.A. Lerner, 1981: A new finite differencing scheme for the tracer transport equation. J. Appl. Meteorol., 20, 1483-1498.

Russell, G.L., J.R. Miller, and D. Rind, 1995: A coupled atmosphere-ocean model for transient climate change studies.  Atmosphere-Ocean, 33, 683-730.

Walsh, J., and C. Johnson, 1979: An analysis of Arctic sea ice fluctuations. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 9, 580-591.


CMIP Documentation Directory

Last update 15 May, 2002.  This page is maintained by Tom Phillips (

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