Model GFDL_R15_a: Elaborations



Model GDDL_R15_a is an entry in both the CMIP1 and the CMIP2 intercomparisons.


The procedure for spinup/initialization to the simulation starting point of the GFDL_R15_a coupled model was as follows, based on Manabe et al. 1991 and personal communication from R. Stouffer concerning amendments of this procedure that followed a change in computing platform from a CDC 205 computer to a Cray Y/MP:

Land Surface Processes

Sea Ice


Bryan, K., 1969: Climate and the ocean circulation. III: The ocean model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 97, 806-827.

Bryan, K., 1984: Accelerating the convergence to equilibrium of ocean-climate models. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 14, 666-673.

Bryan, K., S. Manabe, and R.C. Pacanowski, 1975: A global ocean-atmosphere climate model. II: The oceanic circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 5, 30-46.

Holloway, J.L., Jr., and S. Manabe, 1971: Simulation of climate by a general circulation model. I. Hydrological cycle and heat balance. Mon. Wea. Rev., 99, 335-370.

Manabe, S., 1969: Climate and ocean circulation. I. The atmospheric circulation and the hydrology of the earth's surface. Mon. Wea. Rev., 97, 739-774.

Manabe, S., R.J. Stouffer, M.J. Spelman, and K. Bryan, 1991:  Transient response of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model to gradual changes of atmospheric CO2.  Part I: Annual mean response.  J. Climate, 4, 785-818

Parkinson, C.L., J.C. Comiso, H.J. Zwally, D.J. Cavalieri, P. Gloersen, and W.J. Campbell, 1987: Arctic sea ice, 1973-1976: Satellite passive-microwave observations. NASA SP-489, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 296 pp.

Zwally, H.J., C. Comiso, C.L. Parkinson, W.J. Campbell, F.D. Carsey, and P. Gloersen, 1983: Antarctic sea ice, 1973-1976: Satellite passive-microwave observations. NASA SP-459, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 206 pp.


CMIP Documentation Directory

Last update 15 May, 2002.  This page is maintained by Tom Phillips (

LLNL Disclaimers