Model ECHAM4+HOPE-G (ECHO-G): Elaborations

Note: The ECHAM4+HOPE-G (ECHO-G) model is sponsored by the Model and Data Group (M&D) at Max Planck Institut für Meteorologie (MPI).


Model ECHO-G is an entry in CMIP2+ intercomparisons.

Greenhouse Gas Concentrations

In the model control run, greenhouse gas concentrations are as follows:


The procedure for spinup/initialization was as follows :

Land Surface Processes

Sea Ice


Bauer, H., E. Heise, J. Pfaendtner, and V. Renner, 1985: Development of an economical soil model for climate simulation. In Current Issues in Climate Research (Proceedings of the EC Climatology Programme Symposium, held 2-5 Oct. 1984, in Sophia Antipolis, France), A. Ghazi and R. Fantechi (eds.), D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 219-226.

Dümenil, L., and E. Todini, 1992: A rainfall-runoff scheme for use in the Hamburg climate model. In Advances in Theoretical Hydrology: A Tribute to James Dooge, J.P. O'Kane (ed.), European Geophysical Society Series on Hydrological Sciences, Vol. 1, Elsevier Press, Amsterdam, 129-157.

Groetzner, A., R. Sausen, and M. Clausen 1996: The impact of sub-grid scale sea-ice imhomogenities on the perfomance of the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM3,.Climate Dynamics, 12, 477-496.

Hibler, 1979: A dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 9: 817-846.

Legutke, S. and E. Maier-Reimer, 1999: Climatology of the HOPE-G Global Ocean General Circulation Model. Technical report, No. 21, German Climate Computer Centre (DKRZ), Hamburg, 90 pp (

Levitus, S., R. Burgett, and T. P. Boyer, 1994: World Ocean Atlas. 3, Salinity and Vol. 4, Temperature. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 3/4, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Manabe, S., 1969: Climate and ocean circulation. 1. The atmospheric circulation and the hydrology of the Earth's surface.Mon. Wea. Rev., 97, 739-774.

Marsland, S. J., M. Latif and S. Legutke, 2003: Variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Ocean Dynamics, 53(4), 323-331.

Min, S-K., S. Legutke, A. Hense, and W-T. Kwon, 2004: Climatology and internal variability in a 1000-year control simulation with the coupled climate model ECHO-G.  M&D Technical Report No. 2, Modelle & Daten, Hamburg, Germany, 67 pp.   Accessible online at 

Min, S-K., S. Legutke, A. Hense, and W-T. Kwon, 2005a: Internal variability in a 1000-year control simulation with the coupled climate model ECHO-G.  Part I:  near surface temperature, precipitation, and mean sea level pressure.  Tellus (in press).

Min, S-K., S. Legutke, A. Hense, and W-T. Kwon, 2005b: Internal variability in a 1000-year control simulation with the coupled climate model ECHO-G.  Part  II: ENSO and NAO. Tellus (in press).

Parkinson, C. L. and W. M. Washington, 1979: A large-scale numerical model of sea ice. J. Geophys. Res., 84(C1), 311-337.

Patterson, K.A., 1990: Global distributions of total and total-available soil water-holding capacities. M.S. thesis, Department of Geography, University of Deleware, Newark, DE, 119 pp.

Roeckner, E., K. Arpe, L. Bengtsson, M. Christoph, M. Claussen, L. Duemenil, M. Esch, M. Giorgetta, U. Schlese, and U. Schulzweida, 1996: The atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM-4: Model description and simulation of present-day climate. Reports of the Max-Planck-Institute, Hamburg, No. 218, 90 pp.

Sausen, R. S., S. Schubert, and L. Dümenil, 1994: A model of the river run-off for the use in coupled atmosphere-ocean models. J. Hydrology, 155, 337-352.

Stendel, M. and E. Roeckner, 1998: Impacts of horizontal resolution on simulated climate statistics in ECHAM4. Reports of the Max-Planck-Institute, Hamburg, No. 253, 57 pp (

Warrilow, D.A., A.B. Sangster, and A. Slingo, 1986: Modelling of land surface processes and their influence on European climate. DCTN 38, Dynamical Climatology Branch, United Kingdom Meteorological Office, Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 2SZ, UK.

Wolff, J.-O., E. Maier-Reimer, and S. Legutke, 1997: The Hamburg Ocean Primitive Equation Model, Technical report, No. 13, German Climate Computer Center (DKRZ), Hamburg, 98 pp (

Zobler, L., 1986: A world soil file for global climate modeling, NASA Technical Memorandum 87802, Washington, D.C., 32 pp.

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