Model CERFACS1: Elaborations



Model CERFACS1 is an entry in the CMIP1 intercomparison only.


The procedure for spinup/initialization to the simulation starting point of the CERFACS coupled model is as follows (reference: Guilyardi and Madec 1997):

Land Surface Processes

Land surface processes are simulated by the Interactions between Soil-Biosphere-Atmosphere (ISBA) scheme of Noilhan and Planton (1989) as implemented in the ARPEGE model by Mahfouf et al. (1995).

Sea Ice

Sea ice is diagnostically determined as a function of sea surface temperature (SST) (cf. Guilyardi and Madec 1997). If the SST becomes less than the freezing temperature for salt water, ice forms, a constant heat flux is applied to the ocean (-2Wm-2 in the Arctic and �4Wm-2 in the Antarctic), and the atmospheric model computes the net surface heat flux. Sea ice dynamics and rheology are neglected.


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Deardorff, J.W., 1978: Efficient prediction of ground surface temperature and moisture, with inclusion of a layer of vegetation. J. Geophys. Res., 83, 1889-1903.

Esbensen, S.K., and V. Kushnir, 1981: The heat budget of the global ocean: An atlas based on estimates from marine surface observations. Climatic Research Institute, Report No. 29, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

Guilyardi, E., and G. Madec, 1997: Climatology of the OPA-ARPEGE intermediate resolution coupled ocean-atmosphere model, Climate Dyn., 13, 149-165.

Levitus, S., 1982: Climatological atlas of the world's oceans. NOAA Professional Paper 13, 173 pp.

Mahfouf, J.-F., A.O. Manzi, J. Noilhan, H. Giordani, and M. Deque, 1995: The land surface scheme ISBA within the Meteo-France Climate Model ARPEGE. Part 1: Implementation and preliminary results. J. Climate, 8, 2039-2057.

Noilhan, J., and S. Planton, 1989: A simple parameterization of land surface processes for meteorological models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 117, 536-549.

Oberhuber, J.M., 1988: An atlas based on the COADS data set: The budget of heat, buoyancy and turbulent kinetic energy at the surface of the global ocean. Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Report 15, Hamburg, Germany.


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Last update 15 May, 2002.  This page is maintained by Tom Phillips (

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