Model CCSR: Elaborations


Model CCSR is an entry in both the CMIP1 and CMIP2 intercomparisons.


The procedure for spinup/initialization to the simulation starting point of the CCSR coupled model is as follows (reference: Masahide Kimoto, personal communication):

Land Surface Processes

Sea Ice

Sea ice is simulated in a single layer, with an additional layer representing accumulated snow.  Snowfall, sublimation, surface melt and bottom melt/freeze are treated. Ice albedo is in the range 0.5-0.8 and varies linearly according to temperature between 0 and 15 C.  Thermodynamics are modeled after Semtner (1976).  Sea ice dynamics and rheology are neglected.


Hellerman, S., and M. Rosenstein, 1983: Normal monthly wind stress over the world ocean with error estimates. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13, 1093-1104.

Levitus, S., 1982: Climatological atlas of the world's oceans. NOAA Professional Paper 13, 173 pp.

Manabe, S., J. Smagorinsky, and R.F. Strickler, 1965: Simulated climatology of a general circulation model with a hydrologic cycle. Mon. Wea. Rev., 93, 769-798.

Miller, J.R., G.L. Russell, and G. Caliri, 1994: Continental scale river flow in climate models. J. Climate, 7, 914-928.

Semtner, A.J., 1976: A model for the thermodynamic growth of sea ice in numerical investigations of climate.  J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6, 379-389.


CMIP Documentation Directory

Last update 15 May, 2002.  This page is maintained by Tom Phillips (

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